The advantages of learning portuguese

The Advantages of Learning Portuguese

Italy is a very beautiful country with a lot of historical sites and amazing locations. It is no wonder that a lot of people flock to the country every day of the year. With the magnificence of a country also comes a magnificent language, which is considered as among the most romantic and rich languages of the world. The Italian language is used in famous musical pieces and operas, some well known Broadway shows are also written in the language. The richness of Italy is one of the most convincing reasons for you to study and learn its language.

Know More about Your Italian Ancestry

A lot of people migrated to the United States during the World Wars. If you are born of Italian grandparents or great parents that in itself is a great reason for you to learn the Italian language. If you know how to speak the native tongue of your grandparents, it would please them to learn that you are honoring your roots.

Learn One of the Most Beautiful and Romantic Languages

A lot of music and theater shows are written and played in Italian. If you are fond of these types of arts, you should know how to speak the language. You will never be able to fully enjoy and appreciate the beauty of an Italian opera if you do not understand the language. Another positive factor of learning Italian is that you can use it to charm your date as this is certainly a romantic language. It has been known that this language is considered as among the most beautiful and romantic languages throughout the globe.

Learn Italian and Have Fun with Your Visit to Italy

Italy is one of the most famous destinations in Europe; a lot of foreign films come from the country, while several American movies are filmed here. Italy also has a rich historical culture and traditions which its citizens are proud of. This is the reason why the locals of the country choose to speak their native tongue, while there are only a few people who know how to speak American English. If you are planning to visit Italy, you should learn Italian first. Because if you do, you will earn the following benefits:
– You will understand the historical traditions and cultures of Italy more.
– You won’t need an interpreter when you want to converse with the local people of Italy.
– You won’t be making funny hand gestures to convey your thoughts.
– You will be able to know Italian people, whom you can visit anytime you decide to return.

Online Language Courses: Your Modern Alternative

A lot of people who consider the idea of learning a foreign language learn it through online programs. More and more sites, which offer language courses, have emerged over the Internet. Students learn through media files and their progress is checked with the provision of examinations. Teachers who want to share their knowledge on the Italian language can post links to help the students gain more information.

Olympic games for classical music composers

Olympic Games For Classical Music Composers

Despite a seeming incompatibility of such concepts as “music” and “sports”, they’ve been going hand in hand for a number of centuries. In sports, music was often used to accentuate the importance of an event. It stimulated both the public and the athletes. Today music in sports is used quite often. However, the question is, how can sports be used in music?

The classical composers are considered to be the founders of “musical” sports. And rightly so; possessing remarkable talent, these people were the first ones to introduce complex passages and techniques into music pieces, hitherto unknown to anyone. First it looked like the modest attempts based on the desire of a composer to insert something new and unusual into the symphony to surprise the public. But with each subsequent opus the majority of composers mastered the possibilities of the instrument or, instruments, for which music was written.

Mainly they were keyboard instruments, and soon there was a lot of “novelty” in symphonies. Eventually, these novelties were replaced by the new ones and so on. The composers continued to create new masterpieces and neither deafness, as in case with Beethoven, nor blindness, as with I.S. Bach, was capable of preventing these people from writing new compositions.

We are not going to go too deep into the past and we shall concentrate our attention only on those composers and performers who influenced modern music the most.

The first person to consider in this discussion is the Italian violinist Niccolo Paganini. Having extraordinary long hands and fingers by birth, Paganini quickly mastered violin and guitar. He developed his talent and has broken all known records of tempo. The apex of creativity of the great Italian violinist was 24 caprices and 5 concerts for violin with an orchestra, where the great maestro demonstrated his genius brilliantly. There is perhaps no one who can possibly surpass him in performance technique.

However, if Paganini was the first among violinists and guitarists of his time, then the classical music knew a number of keyboard instrument players with great technique. However, there were leaders among them as well. The first ones to mention are Frederick Chopin and Franz Liszt. And if the Chopin has left only his own “sports fantasies, then Liszt, trying to show the infinite opportunities of a grand piano, in addition to writing his own compositions, liked to set the opuses of other composers written for a symphonic orchestra to the piano. Can you imagine the speed at which the hands and fingers of a musician have to move in order to simultaneously play all parts of an orchestra on one black and white keyboard?

Besides the instrumentalists, classical composers liked to get singers, who performed their vocal pieces. The biggest ordeal was endured by the tenors. Quite often they had to sing such high notes that would cause a regular person to lose their voice. But even the professional singers sometimes managed to strain their voices after the first two or three lines. For example, singing a part of the Astrologer in the opera “The Golden Cockerel” by Rimsky-Korsakov.

As for the percussion instruments, the musical sport arrived at utilizing them mainly due to black jazz musicians at the end of XIX century. Every year, jazz music became more and more complicated. Because of its complexity of performance, it soon became the elite music.

Parallel to the development and popularity of jazz in America, the Spanish flamenco guitarists were emerging in Europe, competing among each other. They perfected the performance tempo to such a level that many of the compositions sounded like one frantic trill. It was absolutely impossible to remember a single note from it.

Fresh breath in musical sport was rock music and its first bands; The Beatles, Rolling Stones and Cream.

But the first one to really develop a sport approach to rock music was the legendary Jimmy Hendrix. It was he who showed what was possible to do with a guitar. It was aerobatics of musical acrobatics!

And this is only a small part of the long list of the well-known names of those who participated in the Musical Olympic Games.

Accommodation cheshire visiting the charming and diverse cheshire area

Accommodation Cheshire Visiting The Charming And Diverse Cheshire Area

A popular region to visit, the county of Cheshire sits in the North West of England. With historic towns and cities and pretty little villages, it is a predominantly rural area. Cheshire offers a diverse range of attractions such as stunning countryside, beautiful stately homes, amazing landscaped gardens, historic buildings and much more. All possible requirements are catered for as the accommodation Cheshire has to offer is enormously wide ranging and varied.

2003 saw almost three million visits to Cheshire, and more than eight million nights of accommodation were catered for. With its beautiful countryside and pretty towns and villages, the county is a popular place to visit. Also known as “The Cheshire Gap”, Cheshire lies on a relatively flat clay plain, sandwiched between the hills of North Wales and the Peak District National Park.

With its rich heritage and history, Cheshire has much to explore. Ancient prehistoric burial grounds and iron age hill forts have been discovered in the county. The walled city of Chester boasts many historic buildings, including a Roman fort. Fifteenth, sixteenth and seventeenth century timbered buildings are still scattered throughout the towns and villages of the region. Silk weaving, Cheshire cheese and salt production have all been famous products of Cheshire.

There are many wonderful walks and outing to be had in the gorgeous Cheshire countryside. Holidays can be based in towns, cities or rural areas of the county. Dues to its location, Cheshire is a great place to stay and make day trips to North Wales, Liverpool, Manchester and the Peak District National Park.

Basic budget hotels, spa hotels, modern city hotels, grand urban hotels, quiet country hotels, stately homes and manor houses, family hotels and castles. An amazing variety of hotels are available in Chester and throughout the county of Cheshire.

Bed and breakfast accommodation can provide a more relaxed basis for a holiday and there is a plentiful choice of such in Cheshire. Found in the rural areas, towns and cities, there are comfortable, friendly bed and breakfasts to suit all budgets.

Cheshire’s wonderful buildings ensure there is a wide range of self catering accommodation available for a totally relaxed and homely stay. Some examples are converted farm stables, village cottages, city apartments and holiday parks.

Camping and caravaning is well catered for in the Cheshire countryside. Facilities can range from a field to pitch a tent in to large parks with all amenities. Camping or caravan is a fantastic way to escape and explore this beautiful area.

Many farms in the Cheshire countryside offer bed and breakfast or self catering accommodation. The facilities can vary from quaint, old cottages to modern stable or barn conversions. Activities available on the farm will differ depending on the particular provider. On working farms, it may be possible to view daily farm activities, meet farm animals and even get the children to help out around the farm. Each farm holiday is a totally unique experience.

Whatever the purpose of a trip to Cheshire, be it for business, pleasure, a family holiday or a romantic weekend, there is a plentiful choice of fantastic accommodation to ensure you have a wonderful time in the amazing county.

Creating a system that supports curriculum change





 In daily life changes in the rules, roles and relationships that controls people’s lives demand corresponding changes in their behaviors. In regard to real structural change the demands are even higher because it requires re-arranging of entire systems of value and meaning that orders people’s lives. No wonder it is so difficult to bring about change. Real structural changes such as curriculum change, often challenge traditional views of educational stake holders and meet with a lot of resistance. It is no surprise that a principal who would have excelled as a strong controlling figure when thrust into a more participatory environment of change has to unlearn much to survive, much less excel in a more supportive and less authoritarian role.

Resistance to curriculum change is not a new phenomenon. In 1939 a satire was published in United States of America that featured the famous “Saber-tooth Curriculum”.  It focuses on a prehistoric tribe whose attempts to curriculum change met with a lot of resistance. In an attempt to survive the drastic whether alterations, the following changes were made in the curriculum to secure more and better food, shelter, clothing and security; there was to be change in subject matter-from the original core subjects like fish-grabbing with bare hands, wooly-horse-clubbing and tiger scaring with fire to new subjects such as net making, antelope snaring and bear killing. Learning experiences now included having students play with sticks, bones and pebbles.

This met with resistance from wise men who advocated for retention of the original subjects, arguing that the essence of true education was its timelessness. They did not understand how new skills such as net-making and Antelope-snaring could replace the cherished old methods like grabbing fish with bare hands, wooly-horse –clubbing and tiger scaring by fire. Alternative diagnostic evaluation methods such as formative and impact evaluation was considered a threat to their accustomed summative methods. According to Hooper (1971) such resistance to curriculum change comes about as a result of people’s misconceptions about change. Many education stake holders do not understand the concept of curriculum change, its process and values. The curriculum change managers who are supposed to sensitize and guide them into realization of success have also failed to create systems that support curriculum change.

In this paper the writer discuses ways of creating a system that supports curriculum change. The following questions will guide the discussion;

1. What is curriculum change?

2. Why should there be change in the curriculum?

3. Why does Curriculum change meet with a lot of resistance?

4. What are the strategies in creating a system that supports curriculum change?

5. How can Curriculum managers build a result driven system for effective Curriculum change?

6. Is there a possibility of balancing change with tradition to reduce the magnitude of resistance to Curriculum change?


Curriculum Change

What is curriculum change?  In answering this question several other questions can be asked like – what happens when change occurs, what is the source of change? Can people predict the consequences of change? Can educators control those changes that directly impact them? Bondi, J. & Wiles, J (1998) argue that education managers have some degree of control over the process of change if they understand the nature of change. Understanding the concept of change and the various types of change, gives individuals freedom to determine the sources of change. It also help them to realize that even though they can not predict change outcomes, they can make “best guess” forecast about its results.

Where as curriculum change is generally defined as the transformation of the curriculum scheme- for example its design, goals and content, we need to realize that with every curriculum change there needs to be clarifications about the parameters of the change. Educators need to be cautious in adopting curriculum change definitions that describe curriculum change as the entire transformation of the curriculum (Hooper, R. (1971). Curriculum change can occur at three levels-minor, medium and major. Minor changes may comprise of re-arrangement of the sequence of the subject content or learning activities or just the addition of one topic or method to the instructional program. Medium changes may include an innovation like integration of subjects, a new subject or a new approach to the existing subject. Major changes will affect many aspects of the curriculum, for example content, methods approaches, materials; subtracting or adding to what already exists. There could also be changes in the conceptual design and organization calling for new planning Shiundu, J. S., Omulando, S.J. (1992)

Reasons for Curriculum Change

There will never be perfect curriculum for all ages. The environment keeps changing and this creates new needs in the society, the curriculum has to change continuously to address these needs. Since the school is a social system serving the society, changes in the society will definitely provoke changes in the school curriculum. Consequently, changes in the community, its population, and professional staff need to be reflected in the related changes in the school curriculum as they directly alter the learner’s needs, interests and attitudes. Therefore, the main aim of curriculum change is to improve learning (Bondi, J. &Wiles, J., 1998).

 In addition, educational change is among the variety of social changes. In itself, it is a function of change in the society. This contends with the view of education as an agent for social change. In this case curriculum change is necessary for broader changes in the society.

Resistance to Curriculum Change

When curriculum authorities and bureaucrats attempt to introduce curriculum change in schools, educational stake holders respond by opposing the new changes. Teachers often experience periods of engagements before frequently returning to the entrenched practices and resolutely awaiting the next innovation. Their personal learning may not even translate into the required changes (MacDonald, D. (2004); Hipkins, R. (2007). There are cases when changes are introduced in fashions that breed in rivalry among teachers, for instance when change brings about promotion to some while undermining the roles of others. Other times change interferes with the school routine and causes additional burden to teachers and administrators.

Whenever the opinions of influential or outspoken individuals such as the politicians and government educational appointees are ignored, there would be massive protests against change. Even though these individuals lack curriculum expertise, they possess the political will and the contextual support that determines vital factors in implementation such as funding and consent for new programs Gruba, P., Alistar, M., Harald, S., Justin, Z.

Another factor that may contribute to resistance to curriculum change is lack of involvement of the community, especially parents, in the initial plans for change. Research has revealed that successful curriculum change is only possible if the community members are actively involved Montero-Sieburth, M. (1992). According to Zais (1976) people normally resist change because of fear of failure. Comfort with familiar routines and psychological glue to rigid and overbearing systems creates discomfort with the suggested changes. Given that curriculum change has implications on social values, and values take along process to change, curriculum change come gradually with more pressure for the change.

Strategies in Creating a System that Supports Curriculum Change

In tradition
al literature on organizational culture, culture and change are depicted as polar opposites, with culture acting in opposition to change. Even though resistance seem to be part of typical school culture, transformational leadership can foster school reforms through maintaining of collaborative norms such as collegiality, experimentation, high expectations, trust and confidence, tangible support, appreciation and recognition, caring ,celebration and humor, protection and involvement in decision making, traditions,, honest and open communication( Glickman, C.D., 2004).

Trust is a prerequisite in achieving all the above elements that are required in support of curriculum change, without it relations will flounder and the management will not get unified support for change. In order to have trust, the curriculum manager should build a school system anchored on respect, personal regard and integrity. (Bryk & Schneider, 2002). Cultures of collaboration and collegiality are promoted in an environment that supports interaction and participating, interdependence, shared interests and beliefs, concern for individual and minority views and meaningful relations (Zepeda, S.J., 2007).

It is possible to overcome resistance to change and bring about structural curriculum changes if support systems are established. Such systems can not simply be sold, they have to be marketed. Usually the concept of “sales” begins with a product and attempts to persuade prospective consumers that they need it. Curriculum marketing must begin by sensitizing the stake holders about the need for change. Once they are converted, production philosophies and capacities have to be adapted to their needs and values to make marketing more effective. It is wrong to approach change as a guarantee to solutions of existing problems.  The “quick fix deal” usually does not work and may cause further resistance Montero-Sierburh, M. (1992).

 In order to satisfy needs and values of prospective customers, education leaders need to raise and provide answers for the following questions

–          If a specific change were adapted, how would the value structure of the various constituencies be influenced?

–          Would these values apply to all groups or to limited personnel?

–          How might the proposed changes be managed to maximize desired values?

–          If change is not possible, how might conditions be altered to prepare for change?

Answering these critical questions require educational leaders to be familiar with the nature of change to be implemented and an equal insight into the values and needs of the groups who will be affected by the change. It is important to note that support groups are key figures in reducing opposition to change, and in developing the zest for restructuring.  The leader needs to identify the target groups that are crucial in for affecting change. Some of the critical individuals in this group are teachers, and teacher organizations, school administrators, school boards, parents, civic, business, political leaders and tax payers in general (Schlechty, P. & Bob, C. 1991).

Among these groups the key “markets” for change are the persons, groups or agencies that will be required to alter their behaviors to give up established interests or to provide funding for change. Since the issue of support logs at the center of any curriculum change, certain requirements have to be met to win the support of educational stake holders.

a) Gaining teachers’ Support

Fulfilling teacher’s needs is one way to getting their support for curriculum reform. In the event of change teachers have a crucial need for recognition and affirmation – affirming peoples’ importance to the future of an enterprise does not only affirm them, but it also affirms the enterprise itself. Secondly, recognizing their need for support, collegial interaction, intellectual variety and success in the proposed changes will make a positive difference in their attitudes (Schlechty, P. & Bob, C. 1991).

Further support can be achieved by recognizing and addressing various stages and expressions of teachers’ concerns. This will range from creating awareness, giving information, clarifying teacher involvement in terms of resources he may need, who he may need to work with, how his ideas may be in cooperated and the expected out come . A forum based on listening, recognizing and praising success is more likely to be productive. (Glickman, C.D., et al. 2004; Balflour, L & Mackenzie, A., 2009).

Enthusiasm will be guaranteed when teachers are actively involved in the change process, and feel assured that their suggestions and views will be taken seriously. In addition, collegiality assurance is vital for teachers as change initiators. They need to be assured that by working together, routine matters will be managed while they are busy with the change process. It is also important to upgrade teacher’s competences and employ additional staff to share the burden that may be brought about by additional programs, methodologies and enrollment. Curriculum supervisors need to be aware that the use of “Seasonal” or adjunct staff and ill prepared teachers is inadequate to bring about expected curriculum changes. Gruba, P., Moffat, A., Sondergaard, H., & Zobel, J. http//

 According to Cheng (1994) the curriculum manager needs to approach teachers in the following ways to ensure their cooperation in the change process;

1. Provide important human resources in terms of participating time, experience, knowledge and skills for better planning and implementation o curriculum change.

2. Produce high quality decisions and plans of change by invoking different perspectives and expertise.

3. Promote greater responsibility, accountability, commitments and support to implementation and results of curriculum change.

4. Develop meanings and culture which contributes to team spirit and organizational integration in the school.

5. Provide opportunities for individuals and groups to enrich their professional experience and pursue professional development

6. Provide more information and greater opportunities to overcome technical and psychological resistances and change ineffective practices at different levels.

Accepting curriculum changes without much resistance also requires that teachers be allowed to operate in an atmosphere of academic freedom. An environment where they can grow, gain stimulation and exploration into new horizons. It is the responsibility of the curriculum manager to create and maintain such an environment that can stir up and accommodate curriculum change (Holmes, A.F., 1977).

b) Getting the Support of other Education Stake Holders

 Once the teachers are on board, other educational stake holders also need to be persuaded to accept the intended change. It is crucial to gain support of parents, union leaders, business and political leaders who influence curriculum school policies and actions. The values and needs of these outside groups may not be easy to identify and satisfy, but attempts must be made to maximize their satisfaction. As much as their needs vary from each other, it is essential that educators learn to listen and hear what each one of them is saying (Shiundu, J.S. & Omulando, S.J., 1992). For instance, parents should be listened to and answered – as they ask about how their children will benefit from the proposed curriculum change. Business leaders, political activists, and other community members may want to be convinced that the new curriculum will provide opportunities for learners to learn what is socially and culturally valued. Like parents, these groups simply want to be sure that the schools will continue to perform as they want them to perform.

c) The Learner’s Support

In this process it is not wise to ignore learners; th
ey are the direct recipients of curriculum change.  Success in curriculum change depends largely on the extent to which they have accepted to embrace the change. The first step in formulating goals and content for the new curriculum is in establishing learners’ current needs, concerns, interests and attitudes in relation to the intended change.

 If the change address all these, then it is likely for them to accept it. If not alterations must be made, for no child will ever be willing to learn things which are not interesting and none of their concern. In reference to the American learners today, Kauchak, D. & Eggen, P. (2009) recommends curriculum change that will address changes in the learners; with regard to sexuality, drug abuse, obesity, crime and violence, and drop out.

Building a Result-Driven System for Effective Curriculum Change

Whenever curriculum change is accepted people want to see immediate improvements in the learning process. Unfortunately this is not usually the case. Many times curriculum change programs are founded on large scales, vague expectations, and broad results that fail to link up cause and effect and confuse activities with actual improvements. Educators need to build a system of results oriented assessment that demonstrates the improvements resulting from the implemented changes. In stark contrast to the activity programs, Robert, H. & Thomson, H.A. (1992) found out that results driven improvements are better than lengthy preparation rituals and aim at accomplishing measurable gains rapidly. They are more likely to have an impact on both long and short term organizational outcomes. Why?

– Result driven approaches to innovation are implemented only as needed. They avoid excess investments that infuse he school with hodgepodge of improvements of activities, and focus on incremental innovations only when specific goals are supported.

-Results-driven approaches are incremental thus allows for testing to determine what really works. Assessment is constantly done to monitor how each improvement strategy contributes to the over all improved performance .This allows for rational decision making during the implementation phase.

– Knowledge of what is working both reinforces the effort and energizes the improvement process further. This is built on the notion that success inspires more success as it contributes to a “among change agents.

– Change-driven improvements that are implemented incrementally tend to establish a continuous learning cycle in the organization. Using incremental projects as testing grounds and closely monitoring results, lead to gradual overall improvement across the entire school program and creates a spirit for further experimentation and more improvements in the future.

Tips on Strategic Management of Results –Driven Programs

Lack of strategic leadership in task based change makes it wither or diffuse (Carless, D., 2002). The following tips have been suggested by Schaffer, R. & Harvey, A.T., (1992);

– The manager needs to ask each unit to set and achieve a few ambitious short term performance goals.

– Periodically review progress, capture the lessons that are being learned and when necessary reformulate the strategy.

– Institutionalize the changes that prove to be effective and discard the rest.

-Create the organizational context that encourages the workers to identify the crucial needs, and challenges confronting the organization.

Results oriented projects are more productive when the results are built around major integrating themes. Researches have established that restructuring efforts around such a themes or vision bring about more lasting change than those loosely understood. An effective direction setting vision is that which aligns all those involved in curriculum change to work together. Themes such as teacher collaboration, cite-based management, interdisciplinary learning, and school-community partnership are often used by Curriculum change activists. If change is viewed to be thematic many stakeholders will l support it (Norris, C.A., & Charles, M.R., 1991).


Balancing Change with Tradition

In order to garner support for curriculum change balancing change and tradition should be the new theme of global education reform. This argument is built on the premise that education is the society’s reproductive system; the means by which society norms, culture, beliefs, values and aspirations are passed on from generation to generation. True education is supposed to prepare individuals to be productive members of their society, in the way they embrace the society’s norms and practices.

Consequently, curriculum change needs to address the most current needs and concerns of the society as expressed in its values, norms and aspirations. Otherwise it (curriculum change) will be like a wave which lashes incessantly at a rock (traditions) without any success. As noted by Rotberg, I.C., (2004) a nation or society’s priorities are typically reflected in its education system. As a result when a society experiences major social shifts- political, demographic, or economic, attention is on educational reforms to address the changes. In the event that the proposed educational reforms are not matched with the changing social context, it will be resisted.

In analyzing educational reforms in 16 different countries Rotberg captured varying themes of educational reform and concluded that each country’s reforms, whether real or rhetorical, stem from its particular societal context and are molded by that context. I n some cases, the context facilitate change; in others, it limits it. Which ever the case, the reforms in all countries must balance change and tradition. In the context of the school curriculum, the curriculum managers have to ensure congruence of the changes with immediate societal needs and concerns. As change comes the curriculum experts need to also understand that in every culture there is a strain towards consistency that has to be accommodated in the expected changes (Park, R.E., 1950).


Curriculum change will always meet resistance, but this can be reduced if curriculum managers understand the nature of resistance and its triggers. In most cases these triggers can be avoided if the managers create systems that embrace change. A school system is comprised of several stake holders whose interests, concerns and aspirations have to be accommodated in the changes. A school culture and climate that embraces collegiality and collaborative efforts succeeds in having everyone on board for support of changes that everyone sanctions and envisions as coherent with societal, individuals’ and school values and objectives. Sharing in the vision, the process and results of change encourages support, participation and involvement of the stake holders.


Balfour, l., & Mackenzie, A. (2009) Involving Teachers in Curriculum change.

             Principal, March/ April.

Bondi, J. & wiles, J., (1998) Curriculum Development; A Guide to Practice (5TH Edition).

            Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River New Jersey.

Bryk & Schneider (2002) Trust in Schools: A core resource for Improvement: New York NY. Russell sage.

Carles, D., (2002) Curriculum Innovation in Primary ELT Classroom. Case Studies of      Three teachers Implementing Hongkong’s Target-oriented Curriculum (TOC) Unpublished Dissertation University of Warwick.

Cheng, Y.C., (1994) Effectiveness of Curriculum Change in Schools. An Organizational      Perspective. International Journal of Educational Management. Vol, 8 No 3, pp. 26-     34.

Glickman, C.D., Gordon, S.P., Ross-Gordon, J.M., (2004) SuperVision and Instructional      Leadership. A developmental Approach; Allyn and Bacon.

Gruba, P., Alister, M.,
Harald, S., Justin, Z., (2004) what drives Curriculum Change.

            Conferences in Research and Practice in information Technology, Vol. 30

Holmes, A.F (1977) The Idea of a Christian College. William, B. Berdmans Publishing Co. Grand Rapids Michigan.

Hooper, R., (1971)

Kauchack, D. & Eggen, P. (2009) Introduction to teaching; Becoming Professional. Merrill Prentice Hall.

Macdonald, D. (2004) Curriculum Change in Heath and Physical Education; The devil’s    Perspective. Journal of Physical Education; New Zealand.

Montero-Sierburth, M. (1992) Models and Practice of Change in Developing Countries;   Comparative Education Review, Vol. 36, No 2 pp175-193.

Norris, C.A & Charles, M.R (1991) Themes for Change: “A Look at Systems Restructuring Experiences” Educational Horizons Vol.69, No 2, pp 90-96.

Ornstein, C.A & Hunkins, F.P (1988)

Park, R. E (1950) Race and Culture: Essays in the Sociology of Contemporary Man, The Free Press of Glencoe Collier-Macmillan Ltd.

Rotberg, I.C. (2004) Balancing Change and Tradition in Global Education Reform;

            Rawman and Little Field Education.

Schaffer, R. & Harvey, A.T (1992) Successful change Programs Begin with Results; Harvard Business Review, Vol. 70 No 1, Jan- Feb pp. 80-89.

Schlechty, P. & Bob, C (1991) Creating a System that Supports Change; Educational HorizonsVol. 69, No2 pp. 78-82.

Shiundu, J.S & Omulando, S.J.1992) Curriculum Theory and Practice in Kenya Oxford University Press, Nairobi.

Zepeda, S.J (2007) Instructional Supervision: Applying Tools and Concepts (2nd edition)


Attention: scholarship applications – the good, the bad and the ugly

Attention: Scholarship Applications – The Good, the Bad and the Ugly

So after four years of busting your butt, staying up late, cramming tons and tons of information you have found out that the hard work you put in has finally paid off. You have tons of college offers pouring through your mailbox and now you wonder what’s next.

Like millions of soon to be college students out there you can go ahead and sign up for the numerous private loans available for school and get yourself into thousands of dollars in debt before you even pick up your first college book or you can go the alternative path and sign up for as many scholarships that you can qualify for. Signing up for a school loan is relatively easy and the majority of application process depends on your credit score. Thankfully the scholarships application process works in a much more different fashion.

There are a majority of scholarships applications out there that are based on merit. Meaning your previous grades in high school, your athletic achievements, academic achievements. And in some cases you can qualify for a scholarship based on your ethnicity and family background. I’ll have to admit that some of qualifications you have to go through during the scholarships application process can be very difficult.

But not all scholarships are equal. The amount of free money you can receive from the scholarships can range from $100-$10,000 and in some cases it can be even more than that. Thankfully there are some scholarships out there that hand out upwards of $10,000 and the qualification is based on your ethnicity. You can thank your relatives and grandparents for giving you that edge.