Free sources to get dissertation help from

3 Free Sources to Get Dissertation Help From

Have you got to give in your dissertation in the next 20 days and you haven’t started it yet? You find yourself badly stuck and don’t know what to do. You have absolutely no idea where to get the dissertation help from or how to even get started.

Stuck are you…uhh? Then following strategies will allow you, for FREE, to successfully undertake this task. There are three essential sources that provide dissertation help for free:

1. Dissertation Advisor:

”What slow and painful death can I give to my hopeless dissertation advisor? Crucifixion is too good for this useless wretch…Is this your immediate thought that comes into your mind when your advisor doesn’t reply your e-mails or doesn’t get in contact with you or always rejects what you send.

For the last 5 years I’ve been hearing from quite a few students that dealing with the supervisor is a total nightmare. As a matter of fact my research shows that every 8 out of 10 students who have to submit their dissertations say that they are stuck because of their advisors. Although in situations your advisor may prove to be chaotic but it is not the only reason of your dissertation stoppages. Turn the cameras on yourself and ask these questions from yourself:

• Are you missing your deadlines?

• Are you calling off and postponing meetings numerous times?

• Are you insisting on quick answers when you don’t provide them yourself?

• Do you always keep altering ideas, topic, or approach?

• Are you shying away from your advisor because of any of the above reasons?

If you answer is yes to any one of the above questions, then you may be a catalyst to the disorder of your relationship. Analyze what you can do to act more responsibly and consistently and more importantly to get the advisor help you.

2. A Friend Who Has Written a Dissertation Before:

Another source of dissertation help can be your friend. If you know someone who has already written a dissertation, you are likely to get tremendous help from them. Your friend can not only help you with the research but can give you a guideline that you could follow to write your own dissertation. You can also get a copy of your friend’s dissertation and use it as a reference.

3. Local & Online Libraries:

Libraries, whether local or online, also serve as a source of dissertation help for you. You can easily find material related to the subject and theme of your dissertation. Being able to go through literally hundreds of references will help you collect relevant matter for your dissertation.

All universities preserve copies of dissertations, usually in their libraries, or in the individual department, or both. Don’t forget to check the universities libraries to find a copy of your dissertation. You can also purchase it for nominal prices through university’s website or through phone.

Dissertations were being done long before the internet came along. Depending too much on the internet and not enough on your own resources, like taking a walk to a local library, can actually hurt your academic paper big time. However, internet resources are now much more sophisticated and comprehensive. Here is a list of few online sources I’ve found useful during my dissertation writing process:

• www.scholar.google.com: Google Scholar offers a search of scholarly literature across many disciplines and sources, including theses, dissertations, books, abstracts and articles.

• www.books.google.com: Google has digitized many books from library collections, including hundreds of books related to Old English literature: editions, translations and much more. You just need to have a Gmail account to access full books.

• www.questia.com: The world’s biggest online library. Although it is a paid resource but worthwhile browsing through. Also it is very cheap. A few bucks can get you a month’s membership to browse through thousands of books, journals, articles, newspapers and magazines.

• www.ebscohost.com: Through this great resource you can access hundreds of libraries by sitting at your home through internet. Remote access of EBSCO’s databases is only allowed to subscribing institutions for personal, non-commercial use. You should check with your institute to see if they have subscribed to this resource.

Final Thoughts:

Knowing the appropriate resources available for dissertation help will most certainly allow you to stay focused. Maintaining human relationship is an art. You have to be smart as well as responsible when interacting with your advisor to get maximum help. Friends and peers are often ignored when you are trying to get your dissertation finished. Don’t make the mistake of forgetting them.

When trying to get free dissertations online be careful about your topic and university guidelines. You may well download a dissertation thinking it as a great match to your topic but in reality it isn’t. You can also search and buy dissertations from the university’s website. Also see if there’s an interlibrary loan system that could send you a copy.

The solar car

The Solar Car

A solar car is a vehicle, powered by electricity instead of fuel, which runs on solar energy obtained from the solar panels on its surface. The solar panels are commonly found on the roof of the vehicle.
This type of vehicle is not entirely practical as of this moment, for obvious reasons. It needs to harness the power of the sun in order to run. Without sunlight, it runs on the reserve power which is stored in its batteries.
Photovoltaic cells convert the sun’s energy into electricity, and this electricity runs the vehicle. That’s why solar cars are limited by the energy input from the sun, their main source of energy. This type of vehicle is typically manufactured for participation in solar car races.
Just like a typical race car, a solar race car has room only for the driver, although there are some designs that include room for a navigator. It does have several features similar to a normal car, such as an accelerator, a brake, rear view mirrors on the camera, and ventilation. It would also have a radio which would be used by the driver, so that he can communicate with his support crew.
The Electrical System
Probably the most important component of a solar car is its electrical system. The electrical system controls all the power that comes in and out of the car. It doesn’t have a gas tank, but its battery essentially functions as one. The battery stores energy produced by the PV cells. There’s a wide range of batteries to choose from. The most common are lead-acid batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries (NiCd), nickel-metal hydride batteries (NiMH), lithium polymer batteries, and lithium-ion batteries. Most solar cars have gauges which monitor the entire electrical system. Among the things that one keeps an eye on, are the battery voltage, and the current.
The Design
The mechanical design of a solar car prioritizes on keeping friction and weight to a minimum, while maintaining sufficient strength so that it doesn’t disintegrate. These vehicles are usually made out of titanium or similar composites, which makes for a good strength-to-weight ratio.
Commercially Available Hybrids
Hybrid cars using solar power are commercially available, in limited quantities. The Toyota Prius is said to be able to generate up to 240 watts of electric power from its solar cells. That results in a 15 km drive, on a sunny day.
One practical application for the solar car would be to use its technology for golf carts, which are lightweight, are mainly used during the day, and are usually parked under the sun.
Our future will be bright when cars roam the streets using renewable energy such as solar power.

Dvr hidden camera and stun guns: active and pro-active self-defense

DVR Hidden Camera and Stun Guns: Active and Pro-Active Self-Defense

Stun Guns are the 21st Century deterrent of choice for many, but just as the best defense is a good offense, so the best offense ought to be a pro-active defense. Being pro-active means being pre-emptive, taking care of matters before they come to pass so that they do not happen. They don’t ever get the chance to take place because of careful forethought. Almost everyone will agree that it is better to prepare than take a chance on safety.

Getting a DVR hidden camera is a necessary element of any pro-active security solution. When it comes to protecting yourself and your loved ones, it is common sense to be pre-emptive. As they say, an ounce of prevention is worth more than a pound of cure. A DVR hidden camera can be a great means of crime prevention. These devices are simple to set up and use, and bring forth a lot of information. The recordings can be used to identify criminals for prosecution as well as proof for insurance companies that your property has been stolen or damaged.

With a DVR hidden camera, you can get the jump on what’s happening before they happen. With a DVR hidden camera you can obtain a true picture of your security situation. They help you distinguish between your true friends and your secret enemies. For example, one of the utmost popular uses of a DVR hidden camera has been to catch malicious babysitters and other caretakers in the act of criminal mischief. Many a vague gut feeling of unease has been justified through the judicious deployment of a DVR hidden camera in the home or office. But you shouldn’t wait until your intuition finally warns you that something’s amiss. A well-placed video surveillance system can confirm almost any matter. Such a security set-up also provides evidence in cases of actual malfeasance.

And don’t forget that crime prevention isn’t simply about physical assault. Employers can also use a DVR hidden camera to help ensure proper behavior in the workplace. Such security systems can also help fight theft and fraud. A video surveillance system can monitor customer-staff interactions and be useful in cases where complaints arise. The cameras are simple to install and only require minimal maintenance. And DVR hidden cameras come in all shapes, sizes, and guises – or, more to the point, disguises. They can be found in the most innocuous of household items, from wall clocks to teddy bears! As technology improves, these devices will be available in an ever-greater variety of helpful form factors.

A short history of camera and discman

A Short History of Camera and Discman

Chinese and Ancient Greek philosophers had studied the essential principles of camera several centuries back. It was by the 19th century when the first genuine camera was invented. The Discman also known as the Sony Discman is used for listening music. It is a battery powered portable disc players with a headphones and the user can listen to music in any position like sitting, walking or jogging.

These days, camera is most used by people for photography. The camera of today took several years of failed experiments and innovations to become a useful medium today. There were several evolutions in the Discman product line including the addition of radio reception and the ability to play Writable and Re-Writable discs that could include traditional format music or MP3 format.

The first permanent photograph was made by Joseph Ni?pce in 1826. With the advancement of technology and processing techniques, paintings and other mediums of portraits were replaced by photography. The only reason was that the camera had the ability to capture realistic and natural images.

Sony was the first companies to introduce a mini radio in the market by the late 1950s. Due to the development of culture of miniaturization, the first Sony Walkman was introduced in the market in 1980. This sort of miniaturization was considered almost impossible at that because of the technology. By 1984, Sony engineers had managed to fit a CD player into a little case smaller than the size of a wood block. It was nicknamed as the Discman which was the first portable CD player released which was wonderful news for the Japanese music lovers.

The old cameras were big in size but in the modern era the camera functions have advanced as compared the early camera although the basic function remains the same. The features of camera have also developed with the advancing technology. The modern camera comes in several features. Camera has an amazing effect in today’s modern world. Memorable events can be preserved; events and places can be captured in the camera that can be viewed from thousands of miles away.

The year 2000 saw a change in the major design of Sony Discman with an improvement in its technology like G Protection and anti-skipping system. The beginning of 2000s saw the growth of MP3 music format and a major design change in Sony Discman’s which were now round portable CD players and incorporated Sony’s ‘The new name of CD Walkman was introduced in 2000 when the old name of Discman was eventually retired. The new “W” logo was introduced composed of several joined together dots for the range of products. Sony still owns the Discman trademark and they reserve the right to revive their brand in the future.

Vigil for schools, colleges,universities and educational institutions

enVigil for Schools, Colleges,Universities and educational institutions

enVigil will take care of following issues for any School or college.
Does the 24 x 7 manned security service at the school location ?
Do you still worry about your institute assets and possible damage to school property for various reasons?
Does your institute have multiple Campuses and administrative offices, book stores etc to manage?
Do you feel worried about the instances of violence in you campus and around campus?
Does the vandalism a strong concern for your administration at the school locations?
Do you need to live monitor areas like laboratories, libraries, study rooms and hostels to ensure every thing is going on the way the administration wants?
Do you have any parking or outside areas that you need to monitor?
Do you a storage area that need to be monitored for loss of school property?
Do you feel need to monitor the playground, gymnasium and your labs regularly?
Do you need to monitor the areas where the school fees and charges are collected?
Then enVigil CCTV is the right security solution for your educational institute.

enVigil takes care of institutions security needs & goes beyond security to improve quality of education.
Protect you intellectual property and labs by unforced circumstances and theft.
enVigil provides many features that can help not just in security but improve your day to day processes.
enVigil will allow you to monitor the staff’s performance,
Improved image to your institute – The presence of a security system shows your parents and students that you care about their customer safety and security and can improve their shopping experience.
Monitor parking areas to avoid liability from the attending students, parents and other vendors
Remotely monitor your staff and total processes shall increase your ROI by reduced theft and better employee performance.
enVigil allows you to define the Private and shard cameras, which are only available to administrator making the systems more suitable to your practical needs!
You can monitor various departments of the school – administrative department, Science lab, Literary,
Play groun area and more from the internal network and also by remote access over the internet.

contact@cradle.com

Area 51

Area 51

Area 51 is the nickname given to a U.S. military base, which supports the development and testing of experimental aircraft and weapons systems. Popularly, believed to be a hideout for Alien activity. Located at 83 miles north of Las Vegas. It is a 6×10 mile block of land situated on the southern shore of Groom Lake.

Since its inception citizens have claimed to view UFO sightings and heard strange, rumbling noises. Yet, the government denies the existence of Area 51. Rather, it emphasizes the area used to serve as a site for military bombings.

During World War II the Groom Lake was used for bombing and artillery practice, but was abandoned until April 1955, when Lockheed’s Skunk Works team selected the location as an ideal testing grounds for forthcoming U-2 spy plane. The base has seven runways including one that now appears to be closed. The closed runway 14R/32L, with a total length of 7,100 m is the longest without any stop-way. The other runways include two asphalt runways with a length of 3,700 m and 1,600 m respectively. And, the remaining four are located on the salt lake.

Since the paranormal occurrences at this location, it has become the subject of curiosity. Many documents and articles have been written about the place. People in hope to turn the rumors true flock outside the complex hoping to capture some alien activity in their camera lens.

The base does not appear on public U.S. government maps and the USGS topographic map shows the long-disused Groom Mine. The area is restricted for both civilians and general military air traffic. Radar stations guard the area and any unauthorized activity is instantly noticed and apprehended with stringent laws. Unauthorized personnel from the military are expelled if caught strolling in the restricted surroundings of Grooms airspace.

Nevada’s state government, acknowledging the potential of the folklore surrounding the base has renamed the section of State Route 375 near Area 51 The Extraterrestrial Highway” in hopes of generating revenue from tourism. Area 51 has become the focus of UFO and conspiracy theories. These theories include:

-The storage, examination, and reverse engineering of crashed alien spacecraft with its occupants at Roswell.

-Manufacturing of aircrafts based on alien technology.

-Joint undertakings with extraterrestrials.

-The development of exotic energy weapons for weather control.

-The development of time travel and teleportation technology.

-The development of unique propulsion systems related to the Aurora Program.

-Activities related with the Majestic 12 organization often referred as one world government.

These conspiracy theories have catapulted Area 51 as a notorious, paranormal activity site in popular culture, specifically in the area of science fiction. Many films and television programs focus on capturing the essence of these theories marked as fictious by the government.

Still several people have claimed knowledge of events supporting Area 51 conspiracy theories. Bob Lazar, who was contracted to work with alien spacecraft that was in the possession of government in 1989.

Similarly, an interview conducted with a 71 year old mechanical engineer who was a former employee at the site during 1950s, claimed to work on a “flying disc simulator” which had been based on a disc originating from a crashed extraterrestrial craft and was used to train US Pilots. He also claimed to have worked with an extraterrestrial being named “J-Rod” and described as a “telepathic translator.

Realism in education

Realism in Education

REALISM  IN  EDUCATON

BACKGROUND AND MEANING OF REALISM :

Just as Naturalism comes on the Educational scene as a protest against systems of education that have become artificial. Realism appears to be a reaction against curricula consisting of studies that have become bookish, sophisticated and a abstruse. As we have a slogan in Naturalism- ‘ Back to Nature ‘ – in Realism we have a slogan-‘ Things rather than words ’.

Idealism deals with ‘mind and  Self ,’ Naturalism emphasizes ‘Matter and Physical world’, and pragmatism ‘Refuses to speculate and transcend beyond experience ‘. And according to Realism the external world of objects is not imaginary. It really exists, “Our experience is not independent but determines reaction to the external objects. Experiences are influenced by the external world which has real existence.” (Dr. Pandey Ram Shakal : An Introduction to Major philosophies of Education, pp. 149-50 ). It is a new outlook. and this new outlook is termed as Realism.

The realistic movement in education started from the 16th century. The 16th and 17th centuries witnessed great inventions and epochal discoveries which greatly increased the store of human knowledge. They extended the horizon of human knowledge. The rise of scientific inquiry opened new vistas before human mind. ( Bacon’s formulation and statement of the new scientific method. ) All these lead to a new spirit of inquiry into the realities of nature. Man started to believe more in himself. He thought that he would conquer the entire world with his supreme gift of rationality. The interest in language and literature began to wane and people became more and more interested in man and his environment.

Consequently, there arose a demand of/for a new type of education in which truth rather than beauty, realities of life of the day rather than the beauties of the old days were aims of education as there was a great premium on Man and human endeavour combined with science  and common sense. This new conception was marked by an awakened interest in the natural phenomena and social institutions. This new outlook came to be termed as  ‘Realism in Education ’.  “ The realist enters his emphatic protest against a cleavage between the work of the school and the life of the world outside it. “ ( Rose, James S. : Ground work of Educational Theory, p. 214 ).

“Education is that which makes a man happy by getting acquaintance with real circumstances of life, create capacity for struggling with adverse situation in life. Realistic education is connected with the needs of life. ”  ( Dr. Chaube, S.P. and Akilesh : philosophical and Sociological; Foundation of Education , P. 171 ).

FUNDAMENTAL POSTULATES AND MAIN TENETS :

1)      External world is a solid Reality, whether known or unknown to man. Reality is already in existence and in the invention of man. It exists independently of being known to perceived by, or related to mind. Man can only comprehend it, through senses. One should dip below the surface to know the reality.

2)      Realism places great premium on Man and human endeavor, which it says, should be combined with science and common-sense. It, however, asserts that ‘Man is finite’ and learning is necessary for a finite man, Education is the process by which he lifts himself up to the external. “ The Realists wish man to be a man of affairs, practical and always seeker of deeper and deeper truth and reality,”

( Taneja, V.R. : Socio-philosophical Approach to Education, p. 241 ).

3)      The realist say that ‘Mind’ like any other material thing has mechanical functioning. They discount its creating ability. “Just as any object of universe can be ‘true’ or ‘false’ similarly mind is also ‘true’ or ‘false’. The development of  mind is the part of the process of development of  the world.” (Dr. Chaube, S.P. and Akilesh : Philosophical and Sociological foundation of Education, p.171 )

‘Mind is what it studies’. (Herbert). If this concept of the realists is accepted in     education then we are forced to believe that children’s mind are ‘mere cameras to register the reality of the universe. ’Philosophers say that mind has lot of scope for enrichment elevation and creativity.

4)      Realism tries to build up a body of systematized knowledge, which is certain and objective and agrees with the standpoint of physical sciences. It says that every reality can be proved by observation, experience, experiment and scientific reasoning, For them, experience is the touchstone of what is real. Whenever  the simple and direct experience can’t determine the objective truth, the common sense puts its truth in scientific research. In the present world of falling idols and falling ideals, the realists emphasize the role of intelligence as great significant, as it formulates the concepts and develops general and abstract ideas.

5)      The realists of all brands aver that values are permanent and objective and say that although institutions and practices very a great deal, the fundamental values of society should not change. The children should be taught those values, which have proved enduring throughout history. They should be taught the nature of ‘right’ and ‘wrong’ and what is objectively good and beautiful.

In brief, Realism believes in the usefulness of the world and the material existence in its field of action . It believes that whatever is real is independent. Whatever is, is and exists. Its presence of existence does not depend upon the knower. (Compare with idealist’s standpoint. ) The individual doesn’t make reality, he only discovers it.

Main tenets :

i)                    Realism believes in the world which we see of perceive to be real. According to them it is wrong to say  ???? ???µ?? •????? ??????µ?? I

ii)                   Realists believe in the present life.

iii)                 They believe that the truth of life and aim of life are in the development from the present unsystematic life.

iv)                 Knowledge is real and can be assimilated by the human beings.

v)                  The realists distinguish between ‘appearance’ and ‘reality’.

vi)                 Realism believes that there is an objective reality apart from that which is presented to the consciousness.

The developing realism has adopted four points in education :

i)                    Humanistic Realism,

ii)                   Social Realism,

iii)                 Sense Realism, and

iv)                 Neo-Realism.

i) Humanistic Realism in education

Humanistic realism is the reaction against the emphasise on form and style of the old classical literature. It has great regard for the ancient literature but it emphasizes the study of content and ideas in the ancient classical literature to understand one’s present social life and environment. The aim is not to study the form and style of old literature to have mastery over it. The study of old literature is a means to understand the practical life. History, Geography, Kautilyas Arthashastra are the subjects and books should be studied for this purpose. Erasmus (1446-1537 ), Rabelais (1483-1553), John Milston (1608-1674) were the supporters of this faculty.

ii)                   Social Realism in education

Social Realism in education is the reaction against a type of education that produces scholars and professional men to the neglect of the man of affairs i.e. pr
actice. Education should not produce men who are unfit in social life. The purpose of education, according to social realists, is to prepare the practical man of the world. Michael de Montaigue (1533-1592) was the main supporter of this faculty.

iii) The sense Realism in education

The sense realism in education emphasizes the training of the senses. Senses are the gateways of knowledge and learning takes place the operation of the senses. According to sense-realists nature is the treasure house of all knowledge and this knowledge can be obtained through the training of the senses.

The sense-realists emphasized the three things :

a)      Application of inductive method formulated by Bacon in order to organize and simplify the instructional process.

b)     To replace instruction in Latin by the instruction in Vernacular, and

c)      To substitute new scientific and social studies in place of the studies in language and literature. Richard Mulcaster (1531-1611), Francis Bacon (1561-1626), Ratke (1571 to 1635) and Comenius  (1592-1670) were the supporters of this faculty.

iv) Neo-Realism in education

Neo-Realism is really a philosophical thought. It appears the methods and results of modern development in physics. They do not consider the scientific principles everlasting while they express the changeability in them. They support the education of art with the science and analytical system of education with the humananistic feelings. They consider living and un living all objective to be organs and the development of organs is the main objective and all round development of the objects is the main characteristic of education. Bertrand Russel and whitehead were the supporters of this faculty.

REALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION :

“Realists do not believe in general and common aims of education. According to them aims are specific to each individual and his perspectives.” (Seetharamu, A.S. : philosophies of Education, p.74). And each one has different  perspectives. The aim of education should be to teach truth rather than beauty, to understand the present practical life.

The purpose of education, according to social realists, is to prepare the practical man of the world.

The science realists expressed that the education should be conducted on universal basis. Greater stress should be laid upon the observation of nature and the education of science.

Neo-realists aim at developing all round development of the objects with the development of their organs.

REALISM AND CURRICULA :

According to humanistic realism classical literature should be studied but not for studying its form and style but for its content and ideas it contained. Milton, one of the supporters of humanistic realism, has drafted a curricula of education as follows :

1st year – Latin, grammar, arithmetic and geometry. Reading of simple Latin and

Greek.

2nd year – Greek, agriculture, geography Natural philosophy, mathematics,

engineering and architecture.

In the next 5th year – chief writings of the ancients in prose and poetry on these             subjects.

Remaining years – Ethical instruction, Bible, Hebrew, Greek, Roman and Saxon Law, economics, politics, history, logic, rhetoric, poetry-all by reading select writhers.

Social realism was generally recommended for the people of the upper social class/strata. It combined literary elements with ideals of chivalric education. Naturally it included the study of literature, heraldry ( the science dealing with coats of arms and the persons who have right to wear them ), genealogy ( science of the development of plants and animals from earlier forms ),riding, fencing, gymnastics, study of modern languages and the customs and institutions of neighboring countries.

Sense-realism attached more importance to the study of natural sciences and contemporary social life. Study of languages is not so significant as the study of natural sciences and contemporary life.

Neo-realism gives stress on the subject physics and on humanistic feelings, physics and psychology, sociology, economics, Ethics, Politics, history, Geography, agriculture varied arts, languages and so on, are the main subjects to be studied according to the Neo-realists.

REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING :

  1. Education should proceed from simple to complex and from concrete to abstract.
  2. Things before rules and words.
  3. Students to be taught to analyze rather than  to construct.
  4. Vernacular to be the medium of instruction.
  5. The order of nature to be sought and followed.

( The child can rule over the nature if the natural laws are followed. )

  1. Repetition is necessary for retention.
  2. Individual’s experience and spirit of inquiry is more important than authority.
  3. No unintelligent cramming. More emphasis on questioning and understanding.
  4. Methods of scientific thinking formulated by sir Thomas Bacon.

( Inductive method of education ).

“(There are and can be only two ways for investigation and discovery of truth. One flies from senses and particulars, to the most general axioms and from these principles and infallible truth determines and discovers intermediate axioms….the other constructs axioms from the senses and particulars by ascending continually and gradually, so as to teach most general axioms last of all.)” – Bacon.

10.  Social realists follow the method of travel of journey method, which will give real experience of varied aspects of life  improve knowledge and mental faculties.

REALISM AND THE TEACHER :

1)      A teacher should be such that he himself be educated and well versed with the customs of belief and rights and duties of people, and the trends of all ages and places.

3)      He must have full mastery of the knowledge of present life.

4)      He must guide the student towards the hard realities of life. He is neither pessimist, nor optimist.

5)      He must be able to expose children to the problems of life and the world around.

( To master one’s own environing life natural, social through a knowledge of the broader life of the ancients.)

A teacher should always keep in mind-

  1. Re-capitulation is necessary to make the knowledge permanent.
  2. One subject  should be taught at one time.
  3. No pressure or coercion be brought upon the child.
  4. The practice of cramming should be given up.
  5. The uniformity should be the basic principle in all things.
  6. Things should be introduced first and then the words.
  7. The entire knowledge should be gained after experience.
  8. The knowledge should be imparted on the basis of organs.
  9. Straight forward method should be adopted for teaching.

10.  There should be a co-relation between utility in daily life and education.

11.  The child should be told the utility of whatever is taught.

12.  The simple rules should be defined.

13.  All the subjects should be taught in proper order.

14.  Various organs of education should be taught in chronological order.

15.  The topic should not be given up unless the boys understand it well.

16.  To find out the interest of the child and to teach accordingly.

REALISM AND THE CHILD :

1)      “Realism in education recognizes the importance of the child. The child is a real unit which has real existence. He has some feelings, some desires and some powers. All these cannot be overlooked. These powers of the child shall have to be given due regard at the time of planning education. ”  1

2)      “ Child can reach near reality through learning by reason.” 1

3)      “ Child has to be given as much freedom as possible.” 1

4)      “The child is to be enabled to proceed on the basis of facts,” 1

5)      The child can learn only when he follows the laws of learning.”1

(When only one response is repeated for one stimulus, it conditioned by that stimulus. Now wherever that situation comes, response will be the same; this is the fact.)

6)      “ The child is to be understood a creature of the real world there is no sense in making him a  God . He has to be trained to become a man only.”  1( Dr. Pandey Ram Shakal : An introduction to Major philosophies of Education, pp.160. 161 ).

REALISM AND SCHOOL ORGANIZATION :

1) School organization would be based on the real needs of society. It is not proper that a college should be established due to political pressure at a place when it is not needed.

2) The opening of science classes in every school is must. Only academic and literary subjects are not sufficient to fulfill the needs of the society.

3) Realism doesn’t oppose co-education. Sex-drive is a real feeling. It is a natural happening so it can not be rejected.

4) School is the mirror of the society. It is a miniature form of society and it presents the real picture of the society

REALISM AND DISCIPLINE :

Discipline is adjustment to objectivity. It is necessary in order to enable the child to adjust himself to his environment and concentrate on his work. Bringing out change in the real world is  impossible. The student himself is a part of this world. He has to admit this fact and adjust himself to the world.

A disciplined student is one who does not withdraw from the cruelties, tyrannies, hardships and shortcomings pervading the world. Realism has vehemently opposed withdrawal from life. One has to adjust oneself to this material world.

Thus, the realism has brought great effect in various fields of education. The aims, the curriculum, the methods of teaching the outlook towards the child, the teachers, the discipline and the system of education all were given new blood. Realism in education dragged the education from the old traditions, idealism and the high and low tides to the real surface.

DARK SIDE OF REALISM :

1)      “ Realism recognizes the real existence of the material world. This recognition remains un objected to unless he says that only material world really exists. The question arises- Is there no power behind this material world ? Does it have its own existence ? What is the limit of the universe ? The realist does give reply to these questions but these replies are not found to be satisfactory. The real existence of material world may be admitted but how can the existence come to an end in the world itself ?  ” 1

2)      “ The realist claims to be objective. Objectivity in knowledge is nothing but the partnership of personal knowledge. Knowledge is always subjective.” 1

3)      “ The realist recognizes the origin of knowledge from the datum achieved by senses and asserts that only objects are main and it is through their contact that knowledge is acquired. Then how does our illusion arise ? How does knowledge become fallacious ? Where does the external object go in dream ? The realist is unable to answer these questions satisfactorily. ” 1

4)      “ The realist does not accept the existence of transcendental ( not based on experience or reason ) being. How could be know the non-existence of that which does not exist ? Has non-existence got  no existence ?  void ness and non-existence also are the parts of existence. Here the realist is dumb completely. ” 1

5)      “ Realism admits real feelings and needs of life on the one hand, gives no place to imagination and sentiment, on the other. What a contradiction ? Are imaginations, emotions and sentiments not real needs of human life ? Is emotionless life not almost dead life ?  Can life be lead on the basis of facts only ? ” 1

6)      “ No inspiration to remove the defects of modern education can be achieved unless the impressiveness of pure and high thought is admitted and attitude is not confined to present facts only;  because the realist is satisfied simply by the fulfillment of the needs of daily life and be does not care to make life sublime.” 1

7)      “ Today the effect of realism has given rise  to the wave of science. It is right, but there should be no indifference towards art and literature. The realist supports this negligence. ” 1

8. “ Realism enthuses disappointment in students and teachers. No progress can be made by having faith in the facts of daily life and shattering faith in ideals. Life is but full of miseries and struggles. Sorrow  is more predominant than joy in the world. A person becomes disappointed by this feeling. That is why realists often appear to be skeptics ( person who doubts the truth of a particular claim, theory etc. ).Pessimists and objectionists, ”1      ( Dr. Pande, Ram Shakal : An Introduction to Major philosophies of Education, pp. 170-171.)

CONCLUSION :

Some of the points raised against realism may be true but some are raised under ignorance of the study of realism in the true sense. Its contributions to modern education should not be ignored. Today attention is being paid towards technical and vocational education in all corners of the world. There are many Engineering Colleges in India, too. Everywhere there is an arrangement of higher education of Medicine and Law.  Increasing interest towards empirical education is the application of the realistic attitude.

There are two main contributions of the education based upon the realism. Firstly, it tried to remove the gulf-between the life and education.  Secondly, it propounded the principle of experimentation and observation in education. It was realism that first introduced the thought that the organs are the door way to knowledge and the knowledge can be gained through the inductive method. The wordy education and bookish knowledge are not sufficient. Real education is that which brings about union between nature and society based upon one’s own experience.

REFERENCES

1.Dr. Pande, Ram Shakal : An Introduction to Major philosophies of Education, 1982 : Agra, Vinod Pustak Mandir, Section Six- Chapters 25 to 30, pp. 149 to 173.

2.Rose, James S. : Grouondwoek of Educational Theory, 1969 : London, George G. Harrap and Co. Ltd. , 182, High Holborn, London, W.C.I. , Chapter-X, pp. 211 to 236.

3.Dr. Chaube, S. P. Akhilesh : Philosophical and Sociological Foundation of Education, 1981 : Agra Vinod Pustak Mandir , Agra – 2. Chapter 12, pp.171 to 174.

4.: Socio-Philosophical Approach to Education, 1987 : New Delhi , Atlantic publishers and Distributors, B-2 , Vishal Enclave, Najafgarh Road, New Delhi – 110 027. Chapter – Twenty, pp. 239 to 251.

5.Seetharamu, A. S. : Philosophies of Education, 1989 : New Delhi, S. B. Nangia, for Ashish Publishing House, 8/81 , Punjabi Bagh, New Delhi – 110026 . Chapter – 6 , pp. 72 to 77.