Creating a system that supports curriculum change





 In daily life changes in the rules, roles and relationships that controls people’s lives demand corresponding changes in their behaviors. In regard to real structural change the demands are even higher because it requires re-arranging of entire systems of value and meaning that orders people’s lives. No wonder it is so difficult to bring about change. Real structural changes such as curriculum change, often challenge traditional views of educational stake holders and meet with a lot of resistance. It is no surprise that a principal who would have excelled as a strong controlling figure when thrust into a more participatory environment of change has to unlearn much to survive, much less excel in a more supportive and less authoritarian role.

Resistance to curriculum change is not a new phenomenon. In 1939 a satire was published in United States of America that featured the famous “Saber-tooth Curriculum”.  It focuses on a prehistoric tribe whose attempts to curriculum change met with a lot of resistance. In an attempt to survive the drastic whether alterations, the following changes were made in the curriculum to secure more and better food, shelter, clothing and security; there was to be change in subject matter-from the original core subjects like fish-grabbing with bare hands, wooly-horse-clubbing and tiger scaring with fire to new subjects such as net making, antelope snaring and bear killing. Learning experiences now included having students play with sticks, bones and pebbles.

This met with resistance from wise men who advocated for retention of the original subjects, arguing that the essence of true education was its timelessness. They did not understand how new skills such as net-making and Antelope-snaring could replace the cherished old methods like grabbing fish with bare hands, wooly-horse –clubbing and tiger scaring by fire. Alternative diagnostic evaluation methods such as formative and impact evaluation was considered a threat to their accustomed summative methods. According to Hooper (1971) such resistance to curriculum change comes about as a result of people’s misconceptions about change. Many education stake holders do not understand the concept of curriculum change, its process and values. The curriculum change managers who are supposed to sensitize and guide them into realization of success have also failed to create systems that support curriculum change.

In this paper the writer discuses ways of creating a system that supports curriculum change. The following questions will guide the discussion;

1. What is curriculum change?

2. Why should there be change in the curriculum?

3. Why does Curriculum change meet with a lot of resistance?

4. What are the strategies in creating a system that supports curriculum change?

5. How can Curriculum managers build a result driven system for effective Curriculum change?

6. Is there a possibility of balancing change with tradition to reduce the magnitude of resistance to Curriculum change?


Curriculum Change

What is curriculum change?  In answering this question several other questions can be asked like – what happens when change occurs, what is the source of change? Can people predict the consequences of change? Can educators control those changes that directly impact them? Bondi, J. & Wiles, J (1998) argue that education managers have some degree of control over the process of change if they understand the nature of change. Understanding the concept of change and the various types of change, gives individuals freedom to determine the sources of change. It also help them to realize that even though they can not predict change outcomes, they can make “best guess” forecast about its results.

Where as curriculum change is generally defined as the transformation of the curriculum scheme- for example its design, goals and content, we need to realize that with every curriculum change there needs to be clarifications about the parameters of the change. Educators need to be cautious in adopting curriculum change definitions that describe curriculum change as the entire transformation of the curriculum (Hooper, R. (1971). Curriculum change can occur at three levels-minor, medium and major. Minor changes may comprise of re-arrangement of the sequence of the subject content or learning activities or just the addition of one topic or method to the instructional program. Medium changes may include an innovation like integration of subjects, a new subject or a new approach to the existing subject. Major changes will affect many aspects of the curriculum, for example content, methods approaches, materials; subtracting or adding to what already exists. There could also be changes in the conceptual design and organization calling for new planning Shiundu, J. S., Omulando, S.J. (1992)

Reasons for Curriculum Change

There will never be perfect curriculum for all ages. The environment keeps changing and this creates new needs in the society, the curriculum has to change continuously to address these needs. Since the school is a social system serving the society, changes in the society will definitely provoke changes in the school curriculum. Consequently, changes in the community, its population, and professional staff need to be reflected in the related changes in the school curriculum as they directly alter the learner’s needs, interests and attitudes. Therefore, the main aim of curriculum change is to improve learning (Bondi, J. &Wiles, J., 1998).

 In addition, educational change is among the variety of social changes. In itself, it is a function of change in the society. This contends with the view of education as an agent for social change. In this case curriculum change is necessary for broader changes in the society.

Resistance to Curriculum Change

When curriculum authorities and bureaucrats attempt to introduce curriculum change in schools, educational stake holders respond by opposing the new changes. Teachers often experience periods of engagements before frequently returning to the entrenched practices and resolutely awaiting the next innovation. Their personal learning may not even translate into the required changes (MacDonald, D. (2004); Hipkins, R. (2007). There are cases when changes are introduced in fashions that breed in rivalry among teachers, for instance when change brings about promotion to some while undermining the roles of others. Other times change interferes with the school routine and causes additional burden to teachers and administrators.

Whenever the opinions of influential or outspoken individuals such as the politicians and government educational appointees are ignored, there would be massive protests against change. Even though these individuals lack curriculum expertise, they possess the political will and the contextual support that determines vital factors in implementation such as funding and consent for new programs Gruba, P., Alistar, M., Harald, S., Justin, Z.

Another factor that may contribute to resistance to curriculum change is lack of involvement of the community, especially parents, in the initial plans for change. Research has revealed that successful curriculum change is only possible if the community members are actively involved Montero-Sieburth, M. (1992). According to Zais (1976) people normally resist change because of fear of failure. Comfort with familiar routines and psychological glue to rigid and overbearing systems creates discomfort with the suggested changes. Given that curriculum change has implications on social values, and values take along process to change, curriculum change come gradually with more pressure for the change.

Strategies in Creating a System that Supports Curriculum Change

In tradition
al literature on organizational culture, culture and change are depicted as polar opposites, with culture acting in opposition to change. Even though resistance seem to be part of typical school culture, transformational leadership can foster school reforms through maintaining of collaborative norms such as collegiality, experimentation, high expectations, trust and confidence, tangible support, appreciation and recognition, caring ,celebration and humor, protection and involvement in decision making, traditions,, honest and open communication( Glickman, C.D., 2004).

Trust is a prerequisite in achieving all the above elements that are required in support of curriculum change, without it relations will flounder and the management will not get unified support for change. In order to have trust, the curriculum manager should build a school system anchored on respect, personal regard and integrity. (Bryk & Schneider, 2002). Cultures of collaboration and collegiality are promoted in an environment that supports interaction and participating, interdependence, shared interests and beliefs, concern for individual and minority views and meaningful relations (Zepeda, S.J., 2007).

It is possible to overcome resistance to change and bring about structural curriculum changes if support systems are established. Such systems can not simply be sold, they have to be marketed. Usually the concept of “sales” begins with a product and attempts to persuade prospective consumers that they need it. Curriculum marketing must begin by sensitizing the stake holders about the need for change. Once they are converted, production philosophies and capacities have to be adapted to their needs and values to make marketing more effective. It is wrong to approach change as a guarantee to solutions of existing problems.  The “quick fix deal” usually does not work and may cause further resistance Montero-Sierburh, M. (1992).

 In order to satisfy needs and values of prospective customers, education leaders need to raise and provide answers for the following questions

–          If a specific change were adapted, how would the value structure of the various constituencies be influenced?

–          Would these values apply to all groups or to limited personnel?

–          How might the proposed changes be managed to maximize desired values?

–          If change is not possible, how might conditions be altered to prepare for change?

Answering these critical questions require educational leaders to be familiar with the nature of change to be implemented and an equal insight into the values and needs of the groups who will be affected by the change. It is important to note that support groups are key figures in reducing opposition to change, and in developing the zest for restructuring.  The leader needs to identify the target groups that are crucial in for affecting change. Some of the critical individuals in this group are teachers, and teacher organizations, school administrators, school boards, parents, civic, business, political leaders and tax payers in general (Schlechty, P. & Bob, C. 1991).

Among these groups the key “markets” for change are the persons, groups or agencies that will be required to alter their behaviors to give up established interests or to provide funding for change. Since the issue of support logs at the center of any curriculum change, certain requirements have to be met to win the support of educational stake holders.

a) Gaining teachers’ Support

Fulfilling teacher’s needs is one way to getting their support for curriculum reform. In the event of change teachers have a crucial need for recognition and affirmation – affirming peoples’ importance to the future of an enterprise does not only affirm them, but it also affirms the enterprise itself. Secondly, recognizing their need for support, collegial interaction, intellectual variety and success in the proposed changes will make a positive difference in their attitudes (Schlechty, P. & Bob, C. 1991).

Further support can be achieved by recognizing and addressing various stages and expressions of teachers’ concerns. This will range from creating awareness, giving information, clarifying teacher involvement in terms of resources he may need, who he may need to work with, how his ideas may be in cooperated and the expected out come . A forum based on listening, recognizing and praising success is more likely to be productive. (Glickman, C.D., et al. 2004; Balflour, L & Mackenzie, A., 2009).

Enthusiasm will be guaranteed when teachers are actively involved in the change process, and feel assured that their suggestions and views will be taken seriously. In addition, collegiality assurance is vital for teachers as change initiators. They need to be assured that by working together, routine matters will be managed while they are busy with the change process. It is also important to upgrade teacher’s competences and employ additional staff to share the burden that may be brought about by additional programs, methodologies and enrollment. Curriculum supervisors need to be aware that the use of “Seasonal” or adjunct staff and ill prepared teachers is inadequate to bring about expected curriculum changes. Gruba, P., Moffat, A., Sondergaard, H., & Zobel, J. http//

 According to Cheng (1994) the curriculum manager needs to approach teachers in the following ways to ensure their cooperation in the change process;

1. Provide important human resources in terms of participating time, experience, knowledge and skills for better planning and implementation o curriculum change.

2. Produce high quality decisions and plans of change by invoking different perspectives and expertise.

3. Promote greater responsibility, accountability, commitments and support to implementation and results of curriculum change.

4. Develop meanings and culture which contributes to team spirit and organizational integration in the school.

5. Provide opportunities for individuals and groups to enrich their professional experience and pursue professional development

6. Provide more information and greater opportunities to overcome technical and psychological resistances and change ineffective practices at different levels.

Accepting curriculum changes without much resistance also requires that teachers be allowed to operate in an atmosphere of academic freedom. An environment where they can grow, gain stimulation and exploration into new horizons. It is the responsibility of the curriculum manager to create and maintain such an environment that can stir up and accommodate curriculum change (Holmes, A.F., 1977).

b) Getting the Support of other Education Stake Holders

 Once the teachers are on board, other educational stake holders also need to be persuaded to accept the intended change. It is crucial to gain support of parents, union leaders, business and political leaders who influence curriculum school policies and actions. The values and needs of these outside groups may not be easy to identify and satisfy, but attempts must be made to maximize their satisfaction. As much as their needs vary from each other, it is essential that educators learn to listen and hear what each one of them is saying (Shiundu, J.S. & Omulando, S.J., 1992). For instance, parents should be listened to and answered – as they ask about how their children will benefit from the proposed curriculum change. Business leaders, political activists, and other community members may want to be convinced that the new curriculum will provide opportunities for learners to learn what is socially and culturally valued. Like parents, these groups simply want to be sure that the schools will continue to perform as they want them to perform.

c) The Learner’s Support

In this process it is not wise to ignore learners; th
ey are the direct recipients of curriculum change.  Success in curriculum change depends largely on the extent to which they have accepted to embrace the change. The first step in formulating goals and content for the new curriculum is in establishing learners’ current needs, concerns, interests and attitudes in relation to the intended change.

 If the change address all these, then it is likely for them to accept it. If not alterations must be made, for no child will ever be willing to learn things which are not interesting and none of their concern. In reference to the American learners today, Kauchak, D. & Eggen, P. (2009) recommends curriculum change that will address changes in the learners; with regard to sexuality, drug abuse, obesity, crime and violence, and drop out.

Building a Result-Driven System for Effective Curriculum Change

Whenever curriculum change is accepted people want to see immediate improvements in the learning process. Unfortunately this is not usually the case. Many times curriculum change programs are founded on large scales, vague expectations, and broad results that fail to link up cause and effect and confuse activities with actual improvements. Educators need to build a system of results oriented assessment that demonstrates the improvements resulting from the implemented changes. In stark contrast to the activity programs, Robert, H. & Thomson, H.A. (1992) found out that results driven improvements are better than lengthy preparation rituals and aim at accomplishing measurable gains rapidly. They are more likely to have an impact on both long and short term organizational outcomes. Why?

– Result driven approaches to innovation are implemented only as needed. They avoid excess investments that infuse he school with hodgepodge of improvements of activities, and focus on incremental innovations only when specific goals are supported.

-Results-driven approaches are incremental thus allows for testing to determine what really works. Assessment is constantly done to monitor how each improvement strategy contributes to the over all improved performance .This allows for rational decision making during the implementation phase.

– Knowledge of what is working both reinforces the effort and energizes the improvement process further. This is built on the notion that success inspires more success as it contributes to a “among change agents.

– Change-driven improvements that are implemented incrementally tend to establish a continuous learning cycle in the organization. Using incremental projects as testing grounds and closely monitoring results, lead to gradual overall improvement across the entire school program and creates a spirit for further experimentation and more improvements in the future.

Tips on Strategic Management of Results –Driven Programs

Lack of strategic leadership in task based change makes it wither or diffuse (Carless, D., 2002). The following tips have been suggested by Schaffer, R. & Harvey, A.T., (1992);

– The manager needs to ask each unit to set and achieve a few ambitious short term performance goals.

– Periodically review progress, capture the lessons that are being learned and when necessary reformulate the strategy.

– Institutionalize the changes that prove to be effective and discard the rest.

-Create the organizational context that encourages the workers to identify the crucial needs, and challenges confronting the organization.

Results oriented projects are more productive when the results are built around major integrating themes. Researches have established that restructuring efforts around such a themes or vision bring about more lasting change than those loosely understood. An effective direction setting vision is that which aligns all those involved in curriculum change to work together. Themes such as teacher collaboration, cite-based management, interdisciplinary learning, and school-community partnership are often used by Curriculum change activists. If change is viewed to be thematic many stakeholders will l support it (Norris, C.A., & Charles, M.R., 1991).


Balancing Change with Tradition

In order to garner support for curriculum change balancing change and tradition should be the new theme of global education reform. This argument is built on the premise that education is the society’s reproductive system; the means by which society norms, culture, beliefs, values and aspirations are passed on from generation to generation. True education is supposed to prepare individuals to be productive members of their society, in the way they embrace the society’s norms and practices.

Consequently, curriculum change needs to address the most current needs and concerns of the society as expressed in its values, norms and aspirations. Otherwise it (curriculum change) will be like a wave which lashes incessantly at a rock (traditions) without any success. As noted by Rotberg, I.C., (2004) a nation or society’s priorities are typically reflected in its education system. As a result when a society experiences major social shifts- political, demographic, or economic, attention is on educational reforms to address the changes. In the event that the proposed educational reforms are not matched with the changing social context, it will be resisted.

In analyzing educational reforms in 16 different countries Rotberg captured varying themes of educational reform and concluded that each country’s reforms, whether real or rhetorical, stem from its particular societal context and are molded by that context. I n some cases, the context facilitate change; in others, it limits it. Which ever the case, the reforms in all countries must balance change and tradition. In the context of the school curriculum, the curriculum managers have to ensure congruence of the changes with immediate societal needs and concerns. As change comes the curriculum experts need to also understand that in every culture there is a strain towards consistency that has to be accommodated in the expected changes (Park, R.E., 1950).


Curriculum change will always meet resistance, but this can be reduced if curriculum managers understand the nature of resistance and its triggers. In most cases these triggers can be avoided if the managers create systems that embrace change. A school system is comprised of several stake holders whose interests, concerns and aspirations have to be accommodated in the changes. A school culture and climate that embraces collegiality and collaborative efforts succeeds in having everyone on board for support of changes that everyone sanctions and envisions as coherent with societal, individuals’ and school values and objectives. Sharing in the vision, the process and results of change encourages support, participation and involvement of the stake holders.


Balfour, l., & Mackenzie, A. (2009) Involving Teachers in Curriculum change.

             Principal, March/ April.

Bondi, J. & wiles, J., (1998) Curriculum Development; A Guide to Practice (5TH Edition).

            Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River New Jersey.

Bryk & Schneider (2002) Trust in Schools: A core resource for Improvement: New York NY. Russell sage.

Carles, D., (2002) Curriculum Innovation in Primary ELT Classroom. Case Studies of      Three teachers Implementing Hongkong’s Target-oriented Curriculum (TOC) Unpublished Dissertation University of Warwick.

Cheng, Y.C., (1994) Effectiveness of Curriculum Change in Schools. An Organizational      Perspective. International Journal of Educational Management. Vol, 8 No 3, pp. 26-     34.

Glickman, C.D., Gordon, S.P., Ross-Gordon, J.M., (2004) SuperVision and Instructional      Leadership. A developmental Approach; Allyn and Bacon.

Gruba, P., Alister, M.,
Harald, S., Justin, Z., (2004) what drives Curriculum Change.

            Conferences in Research and Practice in information Technology, Vol. 30

Holmes, A.F (1977) The Idea of a Christian College. William, B. Berdmans Publishing Co. Grand Rapids Michigan.

Hooper, R., (1971)

Kauchack, D. & Eggen, P. (2009) Introduction to teaching; Becoming Professional. Merrill Prentice Hall.

Macdonald, D. (2004) Curriculum Change in Heath and Physical Education; The devil’s    Perspective. Journal of Physical Education; New Zealand.

Montero-Sierburth, M. (1992) Models and Practice of Change in Developing Countries;   Comparative Education Review, Vol. 36, No 2 pp175-193.

Norris, C.A & Charles, M.R (1991) Themes for Change: “A Look at Systems Restructuring Experiences” Educational Horizons Vol.69, No 2, pp 90-96.

Ornstein, C.A & Hunkins, F.P (1988)

Park, R. E (1950) Race and Culture: Essays in the Sociology of Contemporary Man, The Free Press of Glencoe Collier-Macmillan Ltd.

Rotberg, I.C. (2004) Balancing Change and Tradition in Global Education Reform;

            Rawman and Little Field Education.

Schaffer, R. & Harvey, A.T (1992) Successful change Programs Begin with Results; Harvard Business Review, Vol. 70 No 1, Jan- Feb pp. 80-89.

Schlechty, P. & Bob, C (1991) Creating a System that Supports Change; Educational HorizonsVol. 69, No2 pp. 78-82.

Shiundu, J.S & Omulando, S.J.1992) Curriculum Theory and Practice in Kenya Oxford University Press, Nairobi.

Zepeda, S.J (2007) Instructional Supervision: Applying Tools and Concepts (2nd edition)


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Easy science projects for kids

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It’s important for kids to get involved in science from an early age, as exposure to scientific ideas and the world of exploration as soon as possible is the best way to foster a love for learning in your children that will last a lifetime. At the same time, scientific knowledge is cumulative, so kids have to start with a solid foundation if they are to develop the necessary scientific skills to succeed in school, and perhaps in a future career. Of course, when doing science projects with kids the most important thing to remember is to have fun! Youth science fair projects aren’t meant to transform your child into a scientist – they are meant to get the creative juices flowing within your child and help him or her continue to explore the natural world and make use of the imagination.

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Is writing an essay can ever be so easy

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Writing is a passion for many, but it has now become a compulsory part of one’s academic career. Appropriate essay writing has to be beckoned with a chosen topic, thorough research, and analysis of the data and developing the essay statement on it. After doing these basic steps planning and execution becomes the significant part of essay writing.

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Vedic astrology xxix

Vedic Astrology Xxix

Vedic Astrology Lesson 29 – The 36 Decanantes

The definition of a Decanate or Drekkana

The 30 degrees Sign divided by 3 is a decanate. The decanates are very important in V A.

A decanate ( Drekkana in Sanskrit ) is 1/3 rd of a house. The first Drekkana is, therefore, 0 to 10 degrees, the second decanate is 10 to 20 degrees & the third decanate is 20 to 30 degrees. Since each Sign has 3 decanates, there are 36 decanates in all. Check out which Drekkana your Ascendant falls in. Look at the Ascending Degree and check where it falls. Also you can read the Drekkana of your Dasa lord. See where the Dasa ruler is posited. Check the decanate. These symbolic representations are closely related to your Fate.

The first decanate of any sign is ruled by the owning planet, second decanate by the 5th lord and the third decanate by the 9th lord. For example, the first decanate of Aries is ruled by Mars, the second decanate is owned by Sun and the third decanate is owned by Jupiter.

The first decanate of Aries ruled by Mars

The first Drekkana of Aries represents a dark complexioned man with a white cloth round his waist, liberal minded, ready to don the garb of the Redeemer, oriented to protect, with awesome red eyes & with a lifted axe. This is a human decanate and an armed decanate.

Since the first decanate of Aries is rising, the native’s fortunes are subject to vicissitudes. They will gain from marriage, property and rural industries. They are meticulous and cautious in approach. They should contain anger and Ego as these negative elements can destroy them. They are able exploit circumstances to their benefit & gain thereby. The important years in their life are 18,28,36,42,46 & 50.

The second decanate of Aries ruled by the Sun

The second Drekkana of Aries is described as representing a woman with a pot belly. attired in a red cloth, horse faced, a lover of food & ornaments, single footed & thirsty. This is a female decanate

Since the second decanate of Aries is rising they maintain that End Justifies the Means and go all out for Wealth. They show off and people get the impression that they are richer than what they really are. They should control the base passions like Anger & envy. The important years in their life are 20, 24, 29, 36, 47,56 & 61.

The third decanate of Aries ruled by Jupiter

The third Drekkana of Aries represents a yellow complexioned man, festooned in cruelty, with artistic skill, a workaholic, unscrupulous, with an irate temparament, with lifted-up stick, clad in purple clothes. This is an armed decanate and human.

Since the third decanate of Aries is rising they have entreprenaurial ability. They generate enemies who are powerful. They become lucky in financial dealings as they combine both risk and caution. They should control their negative aspect as it can destroy them. The most important years in their life are 21, 25, 31, 34 ,36, 42, 45
51 & 52.

The first decanate of Taurus ruled by Venus

The first decanate of Taurus represents a woman with torn ringlets, pot bellied, with fiery clothes, hungry & thirsty, with a penchant for gold and food. This is a female decanate and fiery.

As the first decanate of Taurus is rising they have heavy expenditure commensurate with income. They spend all that they have as they believe that money is for comforts. They have to take care not to get into debts. They should also control their anger. Their dependents hardly get anything. The most important years in their life are 21, 23, 31,42, 51, 65 & 68.

The second decanate of Taurus ruled by Mercury

The second Drekkana of Taurus represents a man possessing a discriminative intellect, with good knowledge of lands, grains, houses, cows, arts, ploughing and carts, hungry, sheep faced, dirty clothes and shoulders like the hump of an ox. This is a human decanate . Also an agriculturist’s.
Since the second decanate of Taurus is rising they are likely to practice thrift and be careful with their money. They follow the principle ” Economy is Prudence ” . The world may condemn them as misers. They miss good opportunities as they are meticulous in investing money. The important years in their life are 17, 21, 24
33, 50 & 55.

The third decanate of Taurus ruled by Saturn

The 3rd Drekkana of Taurus represents by an elephant bodied man, with expertise in capturing deer & sheep, yellow compexioned, with mental tension supreme, white teeth, with speedy legs like that of Sarabha. This is a human decanate.

Since the third decanate of Taurus is rising they may not gain happiness from wealth. They may experience difficulties as age advances and the need for money becomes more. They are advised to practice thrift and be cautious as they have a tendency to give away money. The important years in their life are 18, 22, 26, 31, 35
42, 51 & 57.

The first decanate of Gemini ruled by Mercury

The First Drekkana of Gemini represents a female fond of needlework, with a beauty equalling that of Rambha or Helen, without any issues , with a penchant for ornamentation, with lifted hands & in menses. This is a female decanate.

Since the first decanate of Gemini is rising they will be subject to dire vicissitudes. Their fortune will be influenced by women. At the age of 30 and after they will control big sums of money. They should be careful not to fall a prey to litigation. The important years in their life are 16, 23, 30, 45 & 56.
The second decanate of Gemini ruled by Venus

The Second Drekkana of Gemini represents a man, living in garden, well armoured , with a bow, warlike, armed with weapons, face like that of a Bird and fond of play, children, ornamentation and wealth. This is a human decanate and and a Bird decanate.

Since the second decanate of Gemini is rising they will shine in business and not in service. Since they spend a lot they may not save enough for old age. In spite of good IQ they may have to countenance losses. They should not allow themselves to be exploited. The important years in their life are 19, 23, 25, 29, 32, 36, 43 46 & 49.

The third decanate of Gemini ruled by Saturn

The 3rd Drekkana of Gemini represents a man adorned, with knowledge and expertise in Poesis, Aesthetics & Rhetoic, dancing, festooned in gems and jewellery, superbly decorated in gems, armed to the teeth, armoured with quiver and bow, & a master poet.

Since the third decanate of Gemini is rising they use their good intellect and make money. They are not likely to succeed in speculation. They may have to face litigation during their 45th or 46th year. The important years in their life are 24,29, 33, 35, 41, 47, 59 60 & 62.

The first decanate of Cancer ruled by Moon

The first Drekkana of Cancer represents a man, pig faced, apparelled in fruits, roots & leaves, elephant bodied residing on sandal trees in the forest, with speedy legs and horse necked. Know that this is a quadruped Drekkana.

Since the first decanate of Cancer is rising they are thrifty and careful with money. They follow the principle Economy is Prudence In fact society may dub them as misers. Their wealth will be subject to dire vicissitudes. The important years are 17, 24, 29, 31, 39, 49 and 52. Most probably they will gain by private enterprise.

The second decanate of Cancer ruled by Mars

The second Drekkana of Cancer represents a youthful female crowned with lotus flowers & serpents, in her first virginal blossom, inhabiting forests , crying holding a branch of a tree in a forest. Know that this is a serpentine decanate.

Since the second decanate of Cancer is rising Lady luck does not smile on them in financial matters. The very fact that they are kind & generous is a handicap to save money. They should avoid risk in investments .They may lose money due to litigation. The most important years in their life are 18, 27, 34, 44, 53 & 60.

The third decanate of Cancer ruled by Jupiter

The third Drekkana of Cancer represents a man covered with serpents, adorned with many golden ornaments, with a face flattened, crossing the ocean in a boat in order to make his wife rich and adorned with gold and jewellery. This is a serpentine decanate, human & watery.
Since the third decanate of Cancer is rising they are careless in money matters generally. In advanced years loss of economic position and money are likely. Their fortunes are subject to dire vicissitudes. They always find it difficult to manage their financIal matters. The most important years in life are 19, 26, 33, 36 & 45

The first decanate of Leo ruled by Sun

The First Drekkana of Leo represents a creature who is a cross between vulture and a jackal, a dog and a man dressed in dirty clothes, a creature who is away from its parents, and crying. This is a human decanate, quadruped, Bird decanate & generally sorrowful.

Since the first decanate of Leo is rising by their merits and efforts they make money. They spend as much as they earn. They do well trading in clothes & food. They may have bouts of bad luck in their professional sphere. The important years in life are 21, 26, 31, 33, 38, 43, 50 & 54.

The second decanate of Leo ruled by Jupiter

The second Drekkana of Leo represents a man resembling a horse’s body, long and powerful. crowned with white garlands , appareled in clothes to make it warm, with Krishna Mriga, with a flat nose, with a leonine fierceness, with a bow in the hand . This is an armed human decanate.

Since the second decanate of Leo is rising their main interests are writing, literature, poetry, art, music and journalism. These areas can also become their profession. They unnecessarily earn the frown of their superiors and they suffer thereby. Moderate finances. The most important years are 26,31, 36, 45, 53, 54 & 56.

The third decanate of Leo ruled by Mars

The 3rd Drekkana of Leo represents a man with a face that of a bear and monkey, with a monkeyish character, long beard, curbed ringlets and holding fruits, flesh & stick. This is a quadruped & an armed decanate.

Since the third decanate of Leo is rising they will do well in the professional sphere. Unexpected ways bring in money. They do well in intellectual fields as well as in export business. They are good at contract work. The most important years in their life are 20, 25, 30, 33, 38, 43 & 48.

The first decanate of Virgo ruled by Mercury

The First Drekkana of Virgo represents a virgin holding a pot full of flowers, appareled in dirty raiments, fond of money and clothes and going to the house of the Guru or Initiator. This is a female decanate.

Since the first decanate of Virgo is rising they are workaholics & earn their wealth due to hard work. They have to curb their excessive penchant for Money and the pleasures of the mundane. They have to avoid risks & avoid speculative business. Loss is likely during the latter part of their life. They may be subject to deception and fraud. The important years in their life are 18, 2, 30, 36, 42, 49 & 55.

The second decanate of Virgo ruled by Saturn

The Second Drekkana of Virgo represents a man with a bow & a pen in the hand, dark complexioned, crowned by a cloth, always counting debit and credit, with dense hair all over the body. This is an armed decanate & a male one.

Since the second decanate of Virgo is rising their financial condition will be OK. If they minimize unnecessary risks they are likely to amass considerable wealth.

They practice thrift and are careful in fiscal matters. Jupiter’s transit of Cancer, Aquarius & Scorpio will be important fiscally. The most important years in their life are 18, 24, 30, 36, 42, 49 & 55.

The third decanate of Virgo ruled by Venus

The third Drekkana of Virgo represents a virgin, yellow complexioned, appareled majestically in a white cloth,
with good height, holding a pot and a spoon, going to a divine place of worship in a purified state. This is a female

Since the third decanate of Virgo is rising they will be successful in the first half of life in fiscal matters. Many problems may have to be faced as wastage of money creates them. Disappointments stare them in the face. Better eschew speculation. The important years of their life are 20, 26, 32, 35, 40, 44 & 50.
The first decanate of Libra ruled by Venus

According to Yavanas, the First Drekkana of Libra, represents a man holding Scales or balances, thinking of his capital and goods, seated in a shop in the middle of the road, with expertise in weighing, and thinking to sell his goods & services. This is an urban and a male decanate.

Since the first decanate of Libra is rising money from business ventures & legal occupations will come to them. Extravagance comes to the fore & they may indulge in luxury. They have to understand that speculative ventures are generally harmful. The most important years in their life are 17, 24, 31, 33, 40, 43 & 57.
The second decanate of Libra ruled by Saturn

The middle Drekkana of Libra represents a vulture faced man hungry and thirsty, holding a pot which is ready to fall and thinking of his wife and children. This is a Bird decanate and human.

Since the second decanate of Libra is rising they have to prepare to face dire vicissitudes. Many feel that they have resorted to unfair methods to grab money. They can if you try make money out of literature . Beware of unnecessary expenses. They are not interested in the orthodox ways of making money. The important
years in their life are 15, 22, 24, 29, 31, 36, 42, 44 & 51.

The third decanate of Libra ruled by Mercury

The third Drekkana of Libra represents a man, decked with gems, wearing golden quiver and armour and frightening
the animals in the wilderness, resembling a monkey and holding in the hand fruits and flesh.

Since the third decanate of Libra is rising they have fiscal success. They have an aptitude for hotel management. They love music and the fine arts. They may have to struggle hard in early life. Their life will be marked by sudden elations. The most important years in their life are 16,18, 23, 25, 27, 32, 39, 46 & 53.

Article by G Kumar, Astrologer, writer & programmer of Recently he was awarded a Certificate by the Planetary Gemologists Association Global ( ) as a Planetary Gem Advisor. He has 25 years psychic research experience in the esoteric arts. To subscribe to his free informative Ezine, the Z Files His Astro blog is up at & his Philosophy blog is Mobile 091 9388556053

Artificial intelligence and intuition

Artificial Intelligence And Intuition

The intuitive algorithm

Roger Penrose considered it impossible. Thinking could never imitate a computer process. He said as much in his book, The Emperor’s New Mind. But, a new book,
The Intuitive Algorithm, (IA), suggested that intuition was a pattern recognition process. Intuition propelled information through many neural regions like a lightning streak. Data moved from input to output in a reported 20 milliseconds. The mind saw, recognized, interpreted and acted. In the blink of an eye. Myriad processes converted light, sound, touch and smell instantly into your nerve impulses. A dedicated region recognized those impulses as objects and events. The limbic system, another region, interpreted those events to generate emotions. A fourth region responded to those emotions with actions. The mind perceived, identified, evaluated and acted. Intuition got you off the hot stove in a fraction of a second. And it could be using a simple algorithm.

Is instant holistic evaluation impossible?

The system, with over a hundred billion neurons, processed the information from input to output in just half a second. All your knowledge was evaluated. Walter Freeman, the famous neurobiologist, defined this amazing ability. “The cognitive guys think it’s just impossible to keep throwing everything you’ve got into the computation every time. But, that is exactly what the brain does. Consciousness is about bringing your entire history to bear on your next step, your next breath, and your next moment.” The mind was holistic. It evaluated all its knowledge for the next activity. How could so much information be processed so quickly? Where could such knowledge be stored?

Exponential growth of the search path

Unfortunately, the recognition of subtle patterns posed formidable problems for computers. The difficulty was an exponential growth of the recognition search path. The problems in the diagnosis of diseases was typical. Normally, many shared symptoms were presented by a multitude of diseases. For example, pain, or fever could be indicated for many diseases. Each symptom pointed to several diseases. The problem was to recognize a single pattern among many overlapping patterns. When searching for the target disease, the first selected ailment with the first presented symptom could lack the second symptom. This meant back and forth searches, which expanded exponentially as the database of diseases increased in size. That made the process absurdly long drawn – theoretically, even years of search, for extensive databases. So, in spite of their incredible speed, rapid pattern recognition on computers could never be imagined.

Instant pattern recognition

IA was proved in practice. It had powered Expert Systems acting with the speed of a simple recalculation on a spreadsheet, to recognize a disease, identify a case law or diagnose the problems of a complex machine. It was instant, holistic, and logical. If several parallel answers could be presented, as in the multiple parameters of a power plant, recognition was instant. For the mind, where millions of parameters were simultaneously presented, real time pattern recognition was practical. And elimination was the key.

Elimination = Switching off

Elimination was switching off – inhibition. Nerve cells were known to extensively inhibit the activities of other cells to highlight context. With access to millions of sensory inputs, the nervous system instantly inhibited – eliminated trillions of combinations to zero in on the right pattern. The process stoutly used “No” answers. If a patient did not have pain, thousands of possible diseases could be ignored. If a patient could just walk into the surgery, a doctor could overlook a wide range of illnesses. But, how could this process of elimination be applied to nerve cells? Where could the wealth of knowledge be stored?

Combinatorial coding

The mind received kaleidoscopic combinations of millions of sensations. Of these, smells were reported to be recognized through a combinatorial coding process, where nerve cells recognized combinations. If a nerve cell had dendritic inputs, identified as A, B, C and so on to Z, it could then fire, when it received inputs at ABC, or DEF. It recognized those combinations. The cell could identify ABC and not ABD. It would be inhibited for ABD. This recognition process was recently reported by science for olfactory neurons. In the experiment scientists reported that even slight changes in chemical structure activated different combinations of receptors. Thus, octanol smelled like oranges, but the similar compound octanoic acid smelled like sweat. A Nobel Prize acknowledged that discovery in 2004.

Galactic nerve cell memories

Combinatorial codes were extensively used by nature. The four “letters” in the genetic code – A, C, G and T – were used in combinations for the creation of a nearly infinite number of genetic sequences. IA discusses the deeper implications of this coding discovery. Animals could differentiate between millions of smells. Dogs could quickly sniff a few footprints of a person and determine accurately which way the person was walking. The animal’s nose could detect the relative odour strength difference between footprints only a few feet apart, to determine the direction of a trail. Smell was identified through remembered combinations. If a nerve cell had just 26 inputs from A to Z, it could receive millions of possible combinations of inputs. The average neuron had thousands of inputs. For IA, millions of nerve cells could give the mind galactic memories for combinations, enabling it to recognize subtle patterns in the environment. Each cell could be a single member of a database, eliminating it (becoming inhibited) for unrecognized combinations of inputs.

Elimination the key

Elimination was the special key, which evaluated vast combinatorial memories. Medical texts reported that the mind had a hierarchy of intelligences, which performed dedicated tasks. For example, there was an association region, which recognized a pair of scissors using the context of its feel. If you injured this region, you could still feel the scissors with your eyes closed, but you would not recognize it as scissors. You still felt the context, but you would not recognize the object. So, intuition could enable nerve cells in association regions to use perception to recognize objects. Medical research reported many such recognition regions.

Serial processing

A pattern recognition algorithm, intuition enabled the finite intelligences in the minds of living things to respond holistically within the 20 millisecond time span. These intelligences acted serially. The first intelligence converted the kaleidoscopic combinations of sensory perceptions from the environment into nerve impulses. The second intelligence recognized these impulses as objects and events. The third intelligence translated the recognized events into feelings. A fourth translated feelings into intelligent drives. Fear triggered an escape drive. A deer bounded away. A bird took flight. A fish swam off. While the activities of running, flying and swimming differed, they achieved the same objective of escaping. Inherited nerve cell memories powered those drives in context.

The mind – seamless pattern recognition

Half a second for a 100 billion nerve cells to use context to eliminate irrelevance and deliver motor output. The time between the shadow and the scream. So, from input to output, the mind was a seamless pattern recognition machine, powered by the key secret of intuition – contextual elimination, from massive acquired and inherited combinatorial memories in nerve cells.

High returns: through scholarships provided by obama grants

High Returns: Through Scholarships Provided By Obama Grants

If someone had to ask you to explain the Obama grant, could you? Many are uncertain as to what it means exactly. Nevertheless the government under the much admired Obama administration is working hard to help working mothers in returning to college. There are many existing government benefits that are being given attention that in truth are just reworked federal programs such as ones which help to assist working mothers to attend college. As a mom the idea of going back to college maybe a dream you never thought could be fulfilled now it can through the Pell grants a huge asset to any potential student. The Federal Pell grants has existed over many years making it one of the many familiar types of government financial aid for the furtherance of college. Unlike a loan, a Pell grant does not have to be repaid, which makes them very attractive to students seeking aid. You may wonder who can be awarded the Pell grant? In general such aid is normally given to students who do not already have a professional degree or bachelors but seek an undergraduate degree. The Scholarship for mom’s program with its two distinct advantages has caused a huge stir amongst single, working moms. Interestingly no program comes under that specific name. However, President Obama and the Obama administration are motivating mothers to take advantage of the Pell grants and its funds in attending College. In addition to being a monetary gift rather than a loan, Pell grants don’t place restrictions on other sources of financial aid that you can receive. Aid from other federal programs as well as private, non-federal institutions can be applied to cover education costs. The Pell grant provides the highest amount of $5,350.00 during the award year which begins on the 1st of July 2009 to the 30th June 2010. Although it is unlikely to cover all your college needs you can as mentioned supplement through other resources. The federal Pell grant has a further advantage i n that it does not limit you to its use once paid out. Books, laptops, housing and travel expenses are acceptable costs when it comes to paying for education. With the Obama administration focusing its attention on education the Pell grant program and its benefits have been highlighted making the scholarships for moms’ all the more popular. If you are a single mother who is working and wishes to become a student and earn a degree such a federal program fulfills all those specifics. Thankfully many are beginning to realize that family obligations or financial needs does not mean that college is no longer an option. The Obama grant given through the Pell grant program has assisted in encouraging many to enroll into college. This is especially true for working mothers. If you’re a single mom working a full-time job, the current administration is encouraging you to return to college and earn a degree. The current administration is heartily cheering for single, full-time working mothers to apply for college and earn a degree. Your future could be much brighter than you realize.

Debt consolidation

20 things you need to know before Debt Consolidation

In this article series we’re covering 20 things you absolutely need to know before debt consolidation, and in this article we’re going to be covering
what you need to look for in your credit report.

If you would like 20 more valuable tips and to find out where you need to go to get a free copy of your credit report, you can get a copy of your free ebook, 20 things you absolutely need to know before debt consolidation available in our resource box.
So let’s talk about what to look for in your free credit report so that you can start your own plan to becoming debt free and
improve your credit score on your own.

First, take a look at where you are financially right now. Your credit report will list the history of your debts—including the debts that have been paid off and closed. It includes the institutions that you borrowed money from, including all lines of credit and credit cards.

It will also list your current debts with the balances you owe. Debts that have gone to collections will also be reported. It is a comprehensive
and detailed report of your credit history.

Second, look at your overall score. It will range from 300 to 850 (FICO). The higher your score, the better your score. This indicates to lenders how much of a credit risk you can be when they extend credit, loans, and/or financial responsibility.

Third, Look for discrepancies, or mistakes. Mistakes happen more often than most people assume. Be sure to report any discrepancies to all credit bureaus. Also look for fraudulent charges that are not connected to you.

Fourth, Look to see if you have been reported to collections. If so, and they are legitimate charges you have failed to pay, you can negotiate a payoff with these debts (which is further explained in your free ebook offered in the resource box).

On your credit report, if your debt ratio is more than 30%, this will have a negative impact on your score. By improving this debt-ratio, you are proactively working on improving your score on your own.

Your credit report will also give you a snapshot of where you are at currently and the next proactive steps to take.

To gain more free information, get your free ebook, 20 things you absolutely need to know before debt consolidation (offered in our resource box).

End of summer fun means back to school fun

End Of Summer Fun Means Back To School Fun

Most children get very down when they see that the end of summer is quickly approaching. They have had a good time for several months and know that summer fun will soon be ending. Going back to school is hard for the younger children because they might be going to school for the first time. The friendly teachers and the number of games that they see in the classroom make them think that going back to school fun might not be different from end of summer fun.

Parents will try to coordinate vacations that the entire family can enjoy during the summer months. The children will have lots of fun swimming in pools in the neighborhood and those at various hotels along the travel route. As the end of summer approaches the family might turn the conversation to the fun that they will have at school next year.

The teenagers might look forward to fun times at school proms and parties after football games. The pre-teens might think that baseball practice after school is going to be fun because they did not get to have play time with these children during the summer. The fresh smiles and energetic bodies will bond once again on the field when the classes go outside for some recreation time.

Some teachers try to ease their students back into the grueling regimen of their studies by teaching classes outside. The end of summer might still linger in the air as the students find that they can raise their voices higher on the playground and shout the answers to the questions that the teacher is asking. The back to school fun is surprisingly refreshing and not as bad as some students thought it would be.

Many students find that they can make a game out of their study time and compete with their siblings to find answers to all of the homework questions that each of them have. The older students might know the answers because they are a year ahead and had to take the same tests the year before. The fun of getting back into the study routine does not seem so bad if there is someone there to help them understand the new level of homework that they must do.

The children begin to realize that summer fun never has to end. There is still plenty of time to play with friends after they get home from school. Some parents might require that the children get finished with the homework before they will be allowed outdoors. The parent might even notice that with these incentives, the kids are able to complete their homework quickly and still find time to have some back to school fun with their friends before they are called in to eat dinner.

Win a samsung laptop & mobile broadband dongle – top 10 broadband

Win a Samsung laptop & mobile broadband dongle – Top 10 Broadband

Are you a student or about to become a student? Review the Top 10 Broadband site and win a Samsung NC10 and mobile broadband dongle.

After this summer another year of University awaits! Whether you are staying at home or moving in to student digs, one thing in certain – gaining a degree or qualification is not cheap.

A student grant is great, but after purchasing student materials, paying unforeseen fees, food bills, transport and had a little cash left for socialising and night life there may not be much in the pockets to get essentials like new laptops and getting your broadband sorted out!

This is where the great NEW competition from Top 10 Broadband can help. Its easy to enter, takes little time and gives you the opportunity to win a Samsung NC10 laptop and mobile broadband dongle. Saving you ?100’s for other necessities (and drinks).

We need your feedback! As we’ve just relaunched our site we want you to post a review on your website or blog telling us what you think of it. Entering is simple; just post a review (up to 200 words) of Top 10 Broadband on your blog or website. To be in with a chance of winning, tell us what you think are the best bits (and the worst bits!) about Top 10 Broadband and link to your favourite page on our site.

The student who writes the best review of Top 10 Broadband – and not just the most complimentary one will win the prize.

When you’ve written your review, drop us an email with a link to your review to

Deadline: 30 June 2009.