Exporing the faith and moral lessons in a christian home school curriculum

Exporing the Faith and Moral Lessons in a Christian Home School Curriculum

The world that we live in, is somewhat complicated and it is confusing for our children. There are so many ideas and images put forth that even we can become confused and unsure. There is one sure way that you can guide your children to a standard of living that will provide them with a strong moral background. This is achieved via a Christian home school curriculum program.

When you are selecting one of these programs, you should see which of the features in these curriculums are most suited for your child’s study needs. Likewise you will need to remember that your child will continue to grow and develop both physically and mentally.

For these reasons choosing a Christian home school curriculum that is flexible and has many different levels of study will provide this mental stimulus. Additionally there should be subjects where an interest in studies will grow. As there are many different types of Christian home school curriculum programs you may want to discuss these many options with your child.

This partnership will let you see what sort of interests your child has towards educational subjects. Also by talking with your children you can ensure that they understand what home school is. They will then know what they must do to make this coursework a success.

There are various Christian home school programs where each phase of your child’s life is divided into sections. In these separate sections your child’s learning is developed so that they can take these lessons into their minds as they grow older. In the first section of the learning the building blocks of a good life are laid.

These first steps that you can give your child are learning phoenetics and the basics of maths. These lessons can be augmented with chapters from the Bible and inspirational stories. You will find the lesson plans that you need provided with the Christian home school curriculum of your choice.

Once you have selected the appropriate curriculum, you can begin guiding your child’s educational development. In this manner you can ensure that the various lesson plans and creative play time are benefiting your child. The addition of real life stories and various biblical messages will enrich their studies.

As with all types of education, you should select the Christian home school curriculum that will help your child learn. The faith and moral lessons in the program will let your child grow and live a fulfilling life as a good Christian citizen. To accomplish this, your love, support and encouragement are required. The choice of good Christian home school curriculum programs is also very helpful in the early formative years.

Captivating reasons why you should plan your career

4 Captivating Reasons Why You Should Plan Your Career

When a person takes an action, it is very important to know the reasons why this action is taken and what outcomes need to be expected. Right now you start thinking about how to plan a career properly. However, do you actually understand the reasons why you need to plan this part of life? Keep reading and get the answers. Plan Your Career to Decide on Higher Education When you leave school, it is very important to choose a college properly. To make the right choice, you should evaluate your abilities and interests and enter the college that will enlarge your understanding of the subject. So the first reason for planning a career is to have a chance to get necessary education. Plan Your Career and Define What Skills Need to Be Developed It is very difficult to have all-round education and be good at everything at once. This is why when you plan a career, you define those skills and demands which have to be improved, trained, and developed. This is why the next reason for career planning is all about proper evaluation of your professional skills and goals. Plan Your Career to Be Sure about Your Future It is not easy to live and not to have any idea about what future is waiting for you. When you plan a career, you get a chance to define what kind of life is more appropriate for you and what you may occupy with during the next several years. In fact, the third reason for planning a career is connected to personal confidence in the future. Plan Your Career to Enter a New Stage of Life If you want to make a progress in your life, you are welcome to plan a career and properly evaluate your opportunities. You leave school, you think about higher education, you start planning a career. Each stage is a new period of time that has to be appreciated and admitted. You become elder, and your actions should prove your maturity. So the final reason for career planning is the necessity to develop all the time.

Solution for common problems of horse training

Solution for Common Problems of Horse Training

Horse training is not an easy job as many of you who own a horse might have experienced while training your horse. However, amongst the many problems that you face while training your horse, you will come across some problems faced by every horse trainer. In this article, we shall try to deal with these common problems of horse training so that you can get the idea about dealing with these problems. Therefore, if you go through this article you will find that you will easily overcome the hurdle of these common problems that you will encounter while training your horse.

You will observe that the new horse that you have bought will create problem in adjusting to the new home. This adjustment problem is more severe in those horses, which you buy from an owner. To understand the problem you can compare the feelings of a human being who has to leave his own home and settle at another place. However, human beings adjust within a short time but horses take more time for the same adjustment. Therefore, if you want to solve this problem you have to develop a strong bond with the horse. There are many techniques of developing this bond and you can choose any one of the techniques to overcome this problem.

Another common problem that you will face while training your horse is the feeding problem as most of the horses become aggressive during feeding and some have the tendency to attack while you are feeding them. This problem arises due to the feeding of the horses in a cramped place, that is their stall and the second reason is that they have not learnt to behave during feeding time. You can easily solve this problem by changing the feeding location. You can use a open field for feeding your horse. However, you should not be harsh with your horse during the feeding time and never use a whip, as it will increase the problem instead of solving it.

You will also come across the problem of balking by your horse during its forward movement especially when it has to move in a new area. Many of you feel that the horse is stubborn, but that is not the reason for balking. The main reason for this type of behavior is the confusion that develops in the mind of the horse when it has to move in an unknown area. This confusion stops their movement, as they cannot understand what they have to do.

To solve this problem you can make the new horse follow an old horse that is used to the trail. If this method does not work, you can take the horse everyday to the same place so that it is acquainted with the area and moves forward on the trail. If you want more guidance about horse, training you can access my signature where you will get the review about the best resource on horse training, which will help you to train your horse and inculcate in it the behavior that you want your horse to develop.

Knowing tony robbins

Knowing Tony Robbins

In life coaching and motivational speaking very few do not know Tony Robbins. Having been in the business of helping people reach their potential, most can say that he is an intellectual and inspirational giant that has become a voice of influence through the years. His philosophy of the science of achievement and the art of fulfillment has grasped many people far and wide in the corners America and the world. Tony Robbins is indeed a beacon for people wanting to achieve financial success and financial freedom.

Tony Robbins is first and foremost a leader. His excellent communication approach makes sure that his message comes across clearly. He has mastered the different approaches to life’s priorities and molds them in a productive way. Tony Robbins is a visionary in every sense of the word. He is a creator of the dreams of people and the navigator and captain of a ship towards one’s individual growth and success. His leadership skills have allowed him to raise and train leaders. In addition Tony Robbins is a recognized authority in life coaching, negotiations, organizational turnaround, and peak performance.

His success as a motivator has also allowed him to help people in ways than he is primarily known for. With his Anthony Robbins Foundation, Tony puts much relevance in giving back to the inner-city youth, senior citizens, and the homeless. With this charity work, Tony Robbins has shown how self-fulfillment and social advocacy can work to provide the right pursuit of happiness.

Tony Robbins’ drive to help individuals to pursue their own passion towards the best quality of life sold him 30 million motivational tapes, printed three best selling motivational books, and allowed him to go to different places to different motivational seminars. The more popular seminar titles from him include Get the Edge, Unlimited Power, Date with Destiny, and Master University. Through these medium, he is able to convey a message of success and positive outlook in life that can be transformed to financial freedom and wealth creation.

Tony Robbins’ impact transcends from his motivational talks to international influence. Tony Robbins has been selected as the Vice Chairman of Health, Education, and Science for the United Nations Nations/Research Center for the International Council for Caring Communities. Robbins has been hand-on in helping to find an electoral solution to Venezuela’s political turmoil. His impact has reached other countries such as South Africa, England, Cuba, and Panama.

As a successful entrepreneur, Tony Robbins has shown that his motivational ideas can be transformed as financial success. Robbins currently serves as a chairman of five private companies and a vice chairman of two other companies including one public company to net revenue of almost US $500 million per year. His diverse set of companies actually fosters most of his advocacies and also serves as the vehicle to reach a lot of people in different ways. His business success gave him the authority to be a consultant for other successful entrepreneurs who are looking to him to help make critical decisions for their companies.

In a comprehensive survey of entrepreneurs who are asked who they want to consult about business decisions if money is not the problem, Anthony Robbins was chosen along with Bill Gates, Donald Trump, Warren Buffet, Lee Iacocca and Ross Perot.

Tony Robbins is indeed a testament of persistence, life improvement, and sense of achievement and fulfillment. Through him many have learned that the hardest goals can be accomplished by following simple philosophies and having the will to act on it. Tony Robbins is definitely an inspiration to people who are seeking financial freedom and purpose-driven lifestyle.

Beta exam 350-030 written exam version is offered first in beta form at a discounted cost of $50 usd

350-030 braindumps

350-030 Beta Exam
350-030 written exam version is offered first in beta form at a discounted cost of $50 USD.350-030 Beta exam is scheduled as you would other written exams and are available at all worldwide testing locations. A passing grade on the beta qualifies a candidate to schedule the lab exam. Results, however, are typically not available until six to eight weeks after the close of the beta. A candidate may attempt the beta exam only once during the beta period.

350-030 Exam Topics Include:
Cisco CallManager
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• Cisco Unity
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• Security
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• Network Management and Operations

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Can twitter teach our kids math

Can Twitter Teach Our Kids Math?

Well at this stage twitter is becoming mainstream. We have to accept twitter is probably going to be here to stay. I posed the question “Can Twitter Teach our Kids Math?” which is a bit of a stretch but I believe it can definitely help.

Twitter to the uninitiated is a simple SMS-like messaging service that allows people to connect and follow the messages posted by people and companys and in turn post (or Tweet) their own status. It is used in a few different ways but mainly by people who just want to keep in touch with people and organisations.

Sounds simple and it really is that simple there is a little bit more to it but basically not much more. But let’s see if we can come up with a scenario where twitter could be used in an educational situation. Imagine if all the students “followed” the teacher on twitter and could get updates and homework tips and results and personal mentoring all on twitter, it’d be a bit cool right? Imagine too if the parents could also follow the school and get updates on school closures and events and their kids progress, again cool right? This would be a super easy way to stay up-to date with what is happening in school and best of all it’s free to everyone concerned. Not particularly innovative just quick and easy movement of information.

Twitter could be great as a communications service in school as described above but it still doesn’t teach our kids. Well we could also offer anonymous free tutor help. I’m actually surprised a service like this doesn’t already exist (well I can’t find one) that allows a person tweet a specific problem to a service and get back an instant-ish response, not sure how the business model would work but hey twitter hasn’t figured one out yet either. Or how about a twitter service where people can post up homework help and advice again surprised the book publishers haven’t cottoned on to this one yet either.

Everyone knows that education is delivered and received by talking and reading well twitter is just a new method of communication and can easily then be included into the mix of education successfully and will succeed and fail in the exact same way as all communication does now. If it succeeds just remember where you heard it first, if it fails blame twitter 😉

Rh302 practice exam

RH302 practice exam

RH302 Exam Description
The Certification Lab Exam is bundled with the RH300 RHCE Rapid Track Course, but may be taken separately. Prospective enrollees in RH302 should consider taking one or more of Red Hat’s RHCE courses in preparation for the exam, but these courses are not required. Candidates are also advised that real-world system administration experience is an important aspect of preparation for the exam, and that study without such experience is unlikely to result in success.

RH302 Exam Requirements:
The Red Hat RH302 certification exam consists of one part conducted in a single day session. RH302 exam is performance-based, meaning that candidates must perform tasks on a live system, rather than answering questions about how one might perform those tasks.

The RedHat Certification RH302 Exam consist of one section lasting 3.5 hours.

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These last two requirements enable RHCEs to demonstrate that they possess both RHCT-level and RHCE-level skills, as well as enabling a person who only has RHCT level skills to earn RHCT if they pass the required competencies.

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Selecting a college: avoiding the "wrong" arguments

Selecting a College: Avoiding the "Wrong" Arguments

Choosing a college is a process that seldom involves only the student. Family, best friends, and sometimes counselors are an essential part of this process. All parties involved perceive college as a unique opportunity that occurs once in a lifetime, and thus, they want to make sure that their choice is right. Definitely, at the end the choice will be the student’s, but other participants also influence such decision. In that regard, this article highlights common “wrong” arguments for choosing a particular college that might be influenced by other people. Financial Aspects The financial aspect is usually an argument proposed by parents, when considering a particular choice foe college. In that regard, it is not just that such indicators as “the cheapest” or “the most expensive” are not indicative of whether the college is the best choice for a particular student or not. It is the idea that using the financial aspect eliminates other important factors, and at the same time tend to ignore such important element as financial aid. Friendship Aspect The factor of friendship are often prevails over parental influence. Such rationale is justified by the perception that school friendship will last forever. Such perception is based on exceptions, rather than a rule. Changing the environment students make new friends, form new companies, and end up in a college, and even worse- with a major that they selected due to short-term influences. It should be noted that even if a student fell into the category of exceptions, i.e. those whose friendship survived during college, such friendship might be a distraction, specifically if the students’ academic performances are different. Casual Factors This category of arguments involves the most absurd reasons that the student might consider for that moment. Specific campus traditions, partying, a celebrity who studies or studied there, and the list can go on and on. The point is that no one is immune to have such “arguments”, and the role of the people surrounding the student is to guide his/her decision into the right direction, using right arguments.

Creating a system that supports curriculum change

CREATING A SYSTEM THAT SUPPORTS CURRICULUM CHANGE

 

CREATING A SYSTEM THAT SUPPORTS CURRICULUM CHANGE

Introduction

 In daily life changes in the rules, roles and relationships that controls people’s lives demand corresponding changes in their behaviors. In regard to real structural change the demands are even higher because it requires re-arranging of entire systems of value and meaning that orders people’s lives. No wonder it is so difficult to bring about change. Real structural changes such as curriculum change, often challenge traditional views of educational stake holders and meet with a lot of resistance. It is no surprise that a principal who would have excelled as a strong controlling figure when thrust into a more participatory environment of change has to unlearn much to survive, much less excel in a more supportive and less authoritarian role.

Resistance to curriculum change is not a new phenomenon. In 1939 a satire was published in United States of America that featured the famous “Saber-tooth Curriculum”.  It focuses on a prehistoric tribe whose attempts to curriculum change met with a lot of resistance. In an attempt to survive the drastic whether alterations, the following changes were made in the curriculum to secure more and better food, shelter, clothing and security; there was to be change in subject matter-from the original core subjects like fish-grabbing with bare hands, wooly-horse-clubbing and tiger scaring with fire to new subjects such as net making, antelope snaring and bear killing. Learning experiences now included having students play with sticks, bones and pebbles.

This met with resistance from wise men who advocated for retention of the original subjects, arguing that the essence of true education was its timelessness. They did not understand how new skills such as net-making and Antelope-snaring could replace the cherished old methods like grabbing fish with bare hands, wooly-horse –clubbing and tiger scaring by fire. Alternative diagnostic evaluation methods such as formative and impact evaluation was considered a threat to their accustomed summative methods. According to Hooper (1971) such resistance to curriculum change comes about as a result of people’s misconceptions about change. Many education stake holders do not understand the concept of curriculum change, its process and values. The curriculum change managers who are supposed to sensitize and guide them into realization of success have also failed to create systems that support curriculum change.

In this paper the writer discuses ways of creating a system that supports curriculum change. The following questions will guide the discussion;

1. What is curriculum change?

2. Why should there be change in the curriculum?

3. Why does Curriculum change meet with a lot of resistance?

4. What are the strategies in creating a system that supports curriculum change?

5. How can Curriculum managers build a result driven system for effective Curriculum change?

6. Is there a possibility of balancing change with tradition to reduce the magnitude of resistance to Curriculum change?

 

Curriculum Change

What is curriculum change?  In answering this question several other questions can be asked like – what happens when change occurs, what is the source of change? Can people predict the consequences of change? Can educators control those changes that directly impact them? Bondi, J. & Wiles, J (1998) argue that education managers have some degree of control over the process of change if they understand the nature of change. Understanding the concept of change and the various types of change, gives individuals freedom to determine the sources of change. It also help them to realize that even though they can not predict change outcomes, they can make “best guess” forecast about its results.

Where as curriculum change is generally defined as the transformation of the curriculum scheme- for example its design, goals and content, we need to realize that with every curriculum change there needs to be clarifications about the parameters of the change. Educators need to be cautious in adopting curriculum change definitions that describe curriculum change as the entire transformation of the curriculum (Hooper, R. (1971). Curriculum change can occur at three levels-minor, medium and major. Minor changes may comprise of re-arrangement of the sequence of the subject content or learning activities or just the addition of one topic or method to the instructional program. Medium changes may include an innovation like integration of subjects, a new subject or a new approach to the existing subject. Major changes will affect many aspects of the curriculum, for example content, methods approaches, materials; subtracting or adding to what already exists. There could also be changes in the conceptual design and organization calling for new planning Shiundu, J. S., Omulando, S.J. (1992)

Reasons for Curriculum Change

There will never be perfect curriculum for all ages. The environment keeps changing and this creates new needs in the society, the curriculum has to change continuously to address these needs. Since the school is a social system serving the society, changes in the society will definitely provoke changes in the school curriculum. Consequently, changes in the community, its population, and professional staff need to be reflected in the related changes in the school curriculum as they directly alter the learner’s needs, interests and attitudes. Therefore, the main aim of curriculum change is to improve learning (Bondi, J. &Wiles, J., 1998).

 In addition, educational change is among the variety of social changes. In itself, it is a function of change in the society. This contends with the view of education as an agent for social change. In this case curriculum change is necessary for broader changes in the society.

Resistance to Curriculum Change

When curriculum authorities and bureaucrats attempt to introduce curriculum change in schools, educational stake holders respond by opposing the new changes. Teachers often experience periods of engagements before frequently returning to the entrenched practices and resolutely awaiting the next innovation. Their personal learning may not even translate into the required changes (MacDonald, D. (2004); Hipkins, R. (2007). There are cases when changes are introduced in fashions that breed in rivalry among teachers, for instance when change brings about promotion to some while undermining the roles of others. Other times change interferes with the school routine and causes additional burden to teachers and administrators.

Whenever the opinions of influential or outspoken individuals such as the politicians and government educational appointees are ignored, there would be massive protests against change. Even though these individuals lack curriculum expertise, they possess the political will and the contextual support that determines vital factors in implementation such as funding and consent for new programs Gruba, P., Alistar, M., Harald, S., Justin, Z.  http://www.cs.mu.oz.au/).

Another factor that may contribute to resistance to curriculum change is lack of involvement of the community, especially parents, in the initial plans for change. Research has revealed that successful curriculum change is only possible if the community members are actively involved Montero-Sieburth, M. (1992). According to Zais (1976) people normally resist change because of fear of failure. Comfort with familiar routines and psychological glue to rigid and overbearing systems creates discomfort with the suggested changes. Given that curriculum change has implications on social values, and values take along process to change, curriculum change come gradually with more pressure for the change.

Strategies in Creating a System that Supports Curriculum Change

In tradition
al literature on organizational culture, culture and change are depicted as polar opposites, with culture acting in opposition to change. Even though resistance seem to be part of typical school culture, transformational leadership can foster school reforms through maintaining of collaborative norms such as collegiality, experimentation, high expectations, trust and confidence, tangible support, appreciation and recognition, caring ,celebration and humor, protection and involvement in decision making, traditions,, honest and open communication( Glickman, C.D., 2004).

Trust is a prerequisite in achieving all the above elements that are required in support of curriculum change, without it relations will flounder and the management will not get unified support for change. In order to have trust, the curriculum manager should build a school system anchored on respect, personal regard and integrity. (Bryk & Schneider, 2002). Cultures of collaboration and collegiality are promoted in an environment that supports interaction and participating, interdependence, shared interests and beliefs, concern for individual and minority views and meaningful relations (Zepeda, S.J., 2007).

It is possible to overcome resistance to change and bring about structural curriculum changes if support systems are established. Such systems can not simply be sold, they have to be marketed. Usually the concept of “sales” begins with a product and attempts to persuade prospective consumers that they need it. Curriculum marketing must begin by sensitizing the stake holders about the need for change. Once they are converted, production philosophies and capacities have to be adapted to their needs and values to make marketing more effective. It is wrong to approach change as a guarantee to solutions of existing problems.  The “quick fix deal” usually does not work and may cause further resistance Montero-Sierburh, M. (1992).

 In order to satisfy needs and values of prospective customers, education leaders need to raise and provide answers for the following questions

–          If a specific change were adapted, how would the value structure of the various constituencies be influenced?

–          Would these values apply to all groups or to limited personnel?

–          How might the proposed changes be managed to maximize desired values?

–          If change is not possible, how might conditions be altered to prepare for change?

Answering these critical questions require educational leaders to be familiar with the nature of change to be implemented and an equal insight into the values and needs of the groups who will be affected by the change. It is important to note that support groups are key figures in reducing opposition to change, and in developing the zest for restructuring.  The leader needs to identify the target groups that are crucial in for affecting change. Some of the critical individuals in this group are teachers, and teacher organizations, school administrators, school boards, parents, civic, business, political leaders and tax payers in general (Schlechty, P. & Bob, C. 1991).

Among these groups the key “markets” for change are the persons, groups or agencies that will be required to alter their behaviors to give up established interests or to provide funding for change. Since the issue of support logs at the center of any curriculum change, certain requirements have to be met to win the support of educational stake holders.

a) Gaining teachers’ Support

Fulfilling teacher’s needs is one way to getting their support for curriculum reform. In the event of change teachers have a crucial need for recognition and affirmation – affirming peoples’ importance to the future of an enterprise does not only affirm them, but it also affirms the enterprise itself. Secondly, recognizing their need for support, collegial interaction, intellectual variety and success in the proposed changes will make a positive difference in their attitudes (Schlechty, P. & Bob, C. 1991).

Further support can be achieved by recognizing and addressing various stages and expressions of teachers’ concerns. This will range from creating awareness, giving information, clarifying teacher involvement in terms of resources he may need, who he may need to work with, how his ideas may be in cooperated and the expected out come . A forum based on listening, recognizing and praising success is more likely to be productive. (Glickman, C.D., et al. 2004; Balflour, L & Mackenzie, A., 2009).

Enthusiasm will be guaranteed when teachers are actively involved in the change process, and feel assured that their suggestions and views will be taken seriously. In addition, collegiality assurance is vital for teachers as change initiators. They need to be assured that by working together, routine matters will be managed while they are busy with the change process. It is also important to upgrade teacher’s competences and employ additional staff to share the burden that may be brought about by additional programs, methodologies and enrollment. Curriculum supervisors need to be aware that the use of “Seasonal” or adjunct staff and ill prepared teachers is inadequate to bring about expected curriculum changes. Gruba, P., Moffat, A., Sondergaard, H., & Zobel, J. http//www.cs.rmit.edu.au/

 According to Cheng (1994) the curriculum manager needs to approach teachers in the following ways to ensure their cooperation in the change process;

1. Provide important human resources in terms of participating time, experience, knowledge and skills for better planning and implementation o curriculum change.

2. Produce high quality decisions and plans of change by invoking different perspectives and expertise.

3. Promote greater responsibility, accountability, commitments and support to implementation and results of curriculum change.

4. Develop meanings and culture which contributes to team spirit and organizational integration in the school.

5. Provide opportunities for individuals and groups to enrich their professional experience and pursue professional development

6. Provide more information and greater opportunities to overcome technical and psychological resistances and change ineffective practices at different levels.

Accepting curriculum changes without much resistance also requires that teachers be allowed to operate in an atmosphere of academic freedom. An environment where they can grow, gain stimulation and exploration into new horizons. It is the responsibility of the curriculum manager to create and maintain such an environment that can stir up and accommodate curriculum change (Holmes, A.F., 1977).

b) Getting the Support of other Education Stake Holders

 Once the teachers are on board, other educational stake holders also need to be persuaded to accept the intended change. It is crucial to gain support of parents, union leaders, business and political leaders who influence curriculum school policies and actions. The values and needs of these outside groups may not be easy to identify and satisfy, but attempts must be made to maximize their satisfaction. As much as their needs vary from each other, it is essential that educators learn to listen and hear what each one of them is saying (Shiundu, J.S. & Omulando, S.J., 1992). For instance, parents should be listened to and answered – as they ask about how their children will benefit from the proposed curriculum change. Business leaders, political activists, and other community members may want to be convinced that the new curriculum will provide opportunities for learners to learn what is socially and culturally valued. Like parents, these groups simply want to be sure that the schools will continue to perform as they want them to perform.

c) The Learner’s Support

In this process it is not wise to ignore learners; th
ey are the direct recipients of curriculum change.  Success in curriculum change depends largely on the extent to which they have accepted to embrace the change. The first step in formulating goals and content for the new curriculum is in establishing learners’ current needs, concerns, interests and attitudes in relation to the intended change.

 If the change address all these, then it is likely for them to accept it. If not alterations must be made, for no child will ever be willing to learn things which are not interesting and none of their concern. In reference to the American learners today, Kauchak, D. & Eggen, P. (2009) recommends curriculum change that will address changes in the learners; with regard to sexuality, drug abuse, obesity, crime and violence, and drop out.

Building a Result-Driven System for Effective Curriculum Change

Whenever curriculum change is accepted people want to see immediate improvements in the learning process. Unfortunately this is not usually the case. Many times curriculum change programs are founded on large scales, vague expectations, and broad results that fail to link up cause and effect and confuse activities with actual improvements. Educators need to build a system of results oriented assessment that demonstrates the improvements resulting from the implemented changes. In stark contrast to the activity programs, Robert, H. & Thomson, H.A. (1992) found out that results driven improvements are better than lengthy preparation rituals and aim at accomplishing measurable gains rapidly. They are more likely to have an impact on both long and short term organizational outcomes. Why?

– Result driven approaches to innovation are implemented only as needed. They avoid excess investments that infuse he school with hodgepodge of improvements of activities, and focus on incremental innovations only when specific goals are supported.

-Results-driven approaches are incremental thus allows for testing to determine what really works. Assessment is constantly done to monitor how each improvement strategy contributes to the over all improved performance .This allows for rational decision making during the implementation phase.

– Knowledge of what is working both reinforces the effort and energizes the improvement process further. This is built on the notion that success inspires more success as it contributes to a “among change agents.

– Change-driven improvements that are implemented incrementally tend to establish a continuous learning cycle in the organization. Using incremental projects as testing grounds and closely monitoring results, lead to gradual overall improvement across the entire school program and creates a spirit for further experimentation and more improvements in the future.

Tips on Strategic Management of Results –Driven Programs

Lack of strategic leadership in task based change makes it wither or diffuse (Carless, D., 2002). The following tips have been suggested by Schaffer, R. & Harvey, A.T., (1992);

– The manager needs to ask each unit to set and achieve a few ambitious short term performance goals.

– Periodically review progress, capture the lessons that are being learned and when necessary reformulate the strategy.

– Institutionalize the changes that prove to be effective and discard the rest.

-Create the organizational context that encourages the workers to identify the crucial needs, and challenges confronting the organization.

Results oriented projects are more productive when the results are built around major integrating themes. Researches have established that restructuring efforts around such a themes or vision bring about more lasting change than those loosely understood. An effective direction setting vision is that which aligns all those involved in curriculum change to work together. Themes such as teacher collaboration, cite-based management, interdisciplinary learning, and school-community partnership are often used by Curriculum change activists. If change is viewed to be thematic many stakeholders will l support it (Norris, C.A., & Charles, M.R., 1991).

 

Balancing Change with Tradition

In order to garner support for curriculum change balancing change and tradition should be the new theme of global education reform. This argument is built on the premise that education is the society’s reproductive system; the means by which society norms, culture, beliefs, values and aspirations are passed on from generation to generation. True education is supposed to prepare individuals to be productive members of their society, in the way they embrace the society’s norms and practices.

Consequently, curriculum change needs to address the most current needs and concerns of the society as expressed in its values, norms and aspirations. Otherwise it (curriculum change) will be like a wave which lashes incessantly at a rock (traditions) without any success. As noted by Rotberg, I.C., (2004) a nation or society’s priorities are typically reflected in its education system. As a result when a society experiences major social shifts- political, demographic, or economic, attention is on educational reforms to address the changes. In the event that the proposed educational reforms are not matched with the changing social context, it will be resisted.

In analyzing educational reforms in 16 different countries Rotberg captured varying themes of educational reform and concluded that each country’s reforms, whether real or rhetorical, stem from its particular societal context and are molded by that context. I n some cases, the context facilitate change; in others, it limits it. Which ever the case, the reforms in all countries must balance change and tradition. In the context of the school curriculum, the curriculum managers have to ensure congruence of the changes with immediate societal needs and concerns. As change comes the curriculum experts need to also understand that in every culture there is a strain towards consistency that has to be accommodated in the expected changes (Park, R.E., 1950).

Conclusion

Curriculum change will always meet resistance, but this can be reduced if curriculum managers understand the nature of resistance and its triggers. In most cases these triggers can be avoided if the managers create systems that embrace change. A school system is comprised of several stake holders whose interests, concerns and aspirations have to be accommodated in the changes. A school culture and climate that embraces collegiality and collaborative efforts succeeds in having everyone on board for support of changes that everyone sanctions and envisions as coherent with societal, individuals’ and school values and objectives. Sharing in the vision, the process and results of change encourages support, participation and involvement of the stake holders.

REFERENCES

Balfour, l., & Mackenzie, A. (2009) Involving Teachers in Curriculum change.

             Principal, March/ April.

Bondi, J. & wiles, J., (1998) Curriculum Development; A Guide to Practice (5TH Edition).

            Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River New Jersey.

Bryk & Schneider (2002) Trust in Schools: A core resource for Improvement: New York NY. Russell sage.

Carles, D., (2002) Curriculum Innovation in Primary ELT Classroom. Case Studies of      Three teachers Implementing Hongkong’s Target-oriented Curriculum (TOC) Unpublished Dissertation University of Warwick.

Cheng, Y.C., (1994) Effectiveness of Curriculum Change in Schools. An Organizational      Perspective. International Journal of Educational Management. Vol, 8 No 3, pp. 26-     34.

Glickman, C.D., Gordon, S.P., Ross-Gordon, J.M., (2004) SuperVision and Instructional      Leadership. A developmental Approach; Allyn and Bacon.

Gruba, P., Alister, M.,
Harald, S., Justin, Z., (2004) what drives Curriculum Change.

            Conferences in Research and Practice in information Technology, Vol. 30

Holmes, A.F (1977) The Idea of a Christian College. William, B. Berdmans Publishing Co. Grand Rapids Michigan.

Hooper, R., (1971)

Kauchack, D. & Eggen, P. (2009) Introduction to teaching; Becoming Professional. Merrill Prentice Hall.

Macdonald, D. (2004) Curriculum Change in Heath and Physical Education; The devil’s    Perspective. Journal of Physical Education; New Zealand.

Montero-Sierburth, M. (1992) Models and Practice of Change in Developing Countries;   Comparative Education Review, Vol. 36, No 2 pp175-193.

Norris, C.A & Charles, M.R (1991) Themes for Change: “A Look at Systems Restructuring Experiences” Educational Horizons Vol.69, No 2, pp 90-96.

Ornstein, C.A & Hunkins, F.P (1988)

Park, R. E (1950) Race and Culture: Essays in the Sociology of Contemporary Man, The Free Press of Glencoe Collier-Macmillan Ltd.

Rotberg, I.C. (2004) Balancing Change and Tradition in Global Education Reform;

            Rawman and Little Field Education.

Schaffer, R. & Harvey, A.T (1992) Successful change Programs Begin with Results; Harvard Business Review, Vol. 70 No 1, Jan- Feb pp. 80-89.

Schlechty, P. & Bob, C (1991) Creating a System that Supports Change; Educational HorizonsVol. 69, No2 pp. 78-82.

Shiundu, J.S & Omulando, S.J.1992) Curriculum Theory and Practice in Kenya Oxford University Press, Nairobi.

Zepeda, S.J (2007) Instructional Supervision: Applying Tools and Concepts (2nd edition)

            

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